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Canada (158,073)
Sociology (1,464)
SOC310H5 (39)
Chapter 1

Chapter 1

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University of Toronto Mississauga
Lina Samuel

Chapter 1 – Capitalism, Industrialization and Post-industrial Society Introduction: - Work: activity that provides a socially valued product or service o Through work we transfer raw materials into something that is desired by society - Macro level of analysis: social structure, focus on changing a variety of institutions that structure regular and predictable patterns of work activity in society (e.g. global economy, labour markets, industries, unions, etc.) o Shouldn’t focus too much on this level b/c we will forget the fact that individuals can reshape these structures - Micro level of analysis: individual, looks at how people experience their jobs, how they adapt to working conditions that are far from ideal and how they try to improve these conditions - Industrialization: accumulation and processing of a society’s resources - Capitalism: used to describe key aspects of the economic and social organization of the productive enterprise o Capitalist system of production  a small number of individuals own and control the means for creating goods and services, while the majority have no direct ownership stake in the economy and are paid a wage to work for those who do o Capitalism countries industries are controlled by private owners for profit The Origins of Industrial Capitalism - Capitalism in Europe had 2 basic periods: o Mercantile/commercial capitalism  merchants and royalty traded goods (such as stones and metals) internationally forming a trading network between different cultures that provided wealth (this fuelled the growth of industrial capitalism in Europe)  Feudal society: society that showed early signs of capitalist activity (Industrial Revolution hadn’t begun yet)  Feudal Europe was a pre-market economy (producer was also the consumer)  Pre-capitalist economy (rare wage labour and no business class)  Social position was inherited o Industrial capitalism Early Capitalism - Began in 1700s - Putting out system: merchants distributed work to peasant households which led to larger workshops that made metal, cloth, goods, etc. o This system allowed more women to be put in the paid work force - Industrial mill: early inventions helped create this o Combined many workers under one roof and the control of managers o Working conditions were poor - Emergence of capitalism changed the gender-based division of labour, however it became more pronounced with the rise of industrial capitalism The Great Transformation - Employment in manufacturing and production increased while employment in agriculture and farming decreased (1800s) th - Industrial capitalism was apparent in the 19 century - Landlord-self relationships were replaced with wage-labour relationships between capitalists and labourers - Problem: controlling, coordinating and managing Canada’s Industrialization Work in Pre-industrial Canada - Canada’s main focus was to produce raw material rather than finished goods - People in Europe came to Canada to find jobs, but there weren’t many, so they went to the US - Many of the immigrants took seasonal jobs that were long hours and tough work The Industrial Era - 2 key ingredients for industrialization: o An available labour force o A transportation infrastructure - Poverty was the norm - No unions, health care and social services or labour laws The Decline of Craftwork - Skilled craft workers could set up their own working conditions, but this control diminished Rethinking Industrialization - Industrialized countries: o Highly urbanized o White collar workers o Complex technology o Education and training correlated with occupation - Logic of industrialism: the idea that industrialism is a powerful force that any country will eventually come to resemble other industrialized countries o Aka thesis of economic, political and cultural convergence The East Asian Tigers - Four Tigers of East Asia  Singapore, Hong Kong, Taiwan and South Korea - These countries underwent rapid industrialization in a short time span - Newly industrializing countries: Thailand, Indonesia and Malaysia, same idea as the Four Tigers - These results because they had good growth rates and lower income inequality - Capitalism is apparent in the four tigers - Examples on page 14-15 The Rise of Capitalism in China, India and the Former Soviet Union - Privatization is widespread in china - State ownership of properly remains dominant - Farmers get full return on anything they produce over a set quota - India has invested heavily in computer engineering and science - White collar outsourcing is central to India’s growth, manufacturing has played a small role - In India, elite workers are put into specially created campuses (with pools, golf, etc.) - Russia depends on oil and gas Theoretical Perspectives Karl Marx on Worker Exploitation and Class Conflict - Mode of production: the overall system of economic activity - Major components of mode of production: o Means of production: major components of mode of production (technology, raw materials, capital investments) o Social relations of production: relationship between the major social groups or classes involved in production - Marx focused on how the ruling class controlled and exploited the working class - Class conflict was central to Marx’s theory of social change - 2 major classes in capitalism: o Bourgeoisie: the capitalist class, which owned the means of production o Proletariat: the working class, which exchanged its labour for wages - He believed a third class
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