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SOC354H5 (2)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Instituting the Development Project.docx

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Department
Sociology
Course
SOC354H5
Professor
Zaheer Baber
Semester
Winter

Description
Chapter 2: Instituting the Development Project Colonialism -Europeans felt that non-Europeans were backwards in their culture -They viewed their difference as progress as European cultural superiority -Saw natives’ land as belonging to nobody legally -European colonization of natural resources converted resources into economic ones, discounting their regenerative capacities and ecological interdependence -Non-Europeans were encouraged to live the European way- “of development” The Colonial Division of Labour -Colonizers established specialized extraction and production of raw materials and primary products that were unavailable in Europe -Primary commodity production at one end (and exporters of sustainability) and industrialization at the other end; relocated resources from colony to metropolis: an unequal ecological exchange -Non-European culture became disorganized (e.g. agriculture reduced to an export monoculture- produced a single type of crop) -Export agriculture interrupted old patterns of diet and cultivation; money determined what people ate -Undermining traditional skills for the benefit of mass production with industrial technology Social Reorganization under Colonialism -Non-European societies were transformed via loss of resources and craft traditions as they were forced to labor to produce exports sustaining distant countries -Global process, in which the colonies provided European countries with cheap products -As the industrial era matured, colonial rule became more bureaucratic, self-financing, depending on military force and loyalty of royalty -Colonizers privatized resource locationslabourers starved -Colonial division of labour developed European societies and underdeveloped non-European societies -Scattering labourers across the world has a global effect which gives rise to ethno-political tensions that shape national politics today -Power based on class structuring via racial humiliation led to resistances and eventually, decolonization Decolonization -Worldwide decolonization started when European colonialism collapsed after WWII, draining countries of power Colonial Liberation -Decolonization is rooted in a liberatory upsurge due to mass political movements of resistance -The UN was eventually formed and included non-European countries in this new era of development -First and Third worlds came together to stimulate economic growth, and social improvements through education, public health, etc. -A new world paradigm of fundamental rights of freedom to all, without distinction by race, colour, sex, language, etc. -Citizen rights to the social contract, that everyone was entitled to economic, social and cultural rights indispensable for his dignity Decolonization and Development -Decolonizationideal of sovereignty, conversion of subjects into citizens and the pursuit of economic development for social justice -US wanted to develop as a national enterprise by being more inner-directed than the outer-directed British imperial model -Division of labour between industry and agriculture defining the exchange between colonial powers and colonies was now internalized in the US Postwar Decolonization
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