Chapter 5-WGS367.docx

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Women and Gender Studies
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Chapter 5: Work and Family Life- The Influence of Social Roles on Health and Illness -growing number of Canadians face the reality of jobs and intimate relationships that no longer last a lifetime -social roles in work or family Life Course Approach -people are embedded into a social network of relationships. It affects everyone in ones social network -importance of the sequencing and timing of life transitions for understanding how biographies unfold -There are both commonalities and points of divergence in stress process and a life course approach. Both conceptual models centres around transitions; however, stress process views transition in terms of their potential for overwhelming coping and adaptation, whereas a life course approach regards transition as markers of an individuals movement through life course. -when both models are integrated: the unique and divergent paths individuals or successive generations adopt for themselves represent opportunities to explore whether and how differentially shape health outcomes Work and Health- The Changing World of Work -work is important both as a social value and a source of identity -has influence on health and well being Scientific management: a method of producing goods that emphasized making people work more efficiently by breaking down a large task into its smallest components and assigning each component to a worker who had been instructed on how the work should be done and how long it should take Fordism: a method of producing goods that combines the principles of scientific management with an automated assembly line to achieve even greater efficiency -had benefits and costs; paid higher wages and guaranteed stable employment but the nature of the work was physically demanding and mindless -created a lot of wealth and stability for Western nations -Flexible production valued the input of the new knowledge worker, whose elite skills an training coupled with greater control over the production process were believed to create further efficiencies -Globalization allowed countries with cheaper production costs to compete directly with manufacturing planets in North America; over time, plants across Canada and the US closed their operations and migrated to countries where labour costs were far lower. To retain their jobs many workers offered wage concessions that eroded their ability to earn a living wage -Women who traditionally withdrew from the labour market permanently once they began having children. Not only were needed in the labour market to maintain living standards in the household following the collapse of the living wage, but were increasingly vocal about their right to enter and stay in the workforce. Ironically, just as men’s employment trajectories became less secure, woman began to adopt the male pattern of lifelong participation in the labour market second shift: the daily chore that still awaited women when they returned home from a full day of paid work Unemployment and Health -risk for death and disease for those in paid employment is significantly lower on average that it is for those who are unemployed -children born after a fathers job less weighed significantly less than children born into households where fathers remained employed throughout pregnancy Stress proliferation: the process by which an initial stressor gives rise to other stressors -these variations in the type and sequence of secondary stressors may help to explain why job loss is a relatively harmless event for some individuals but can be catastrophic to health when prolonged unemployment takes its toll on financial well being, family relationships and sense of social inclusion -poor health is a barrier to labour market participation, but is also a consequence of unemployment Workplace Safety -work fatalities have increased since 1993 (1014) but doesn’t include those that are not under the Worker’s Compensation Board (example: self employers) -office work doesn’t mean fewer injuries. Repetitive tasks like entering info on a keyboard for a long period of time softens tissues. -exposure to dangerous chemicals that cause breathing problems, reproductive health issues and cancer Repetitive Strain Injury: the injuries to tendons or nerves that often result from repetitive movements and that express themselves as pain, numbness, and tingling in the affected body part Psychological Aspects of Work Job demands: the extent t
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