An approach that stresses audience interpretation as the primary site of meaning-making. Certain individuals are more active in their attention to media and disseminate information to others. Heavy viewing of media gives individuals a distorted view of the world. Individuals consciously consume media for their own ends and purposes. The codes of encoding and decoding may not be perfectly symmetrical. code. A set of rules that govern the use of visual and linguistic signs within a culture. encoding. The process of creating a meaningful message according to a particular code. decoding. Semiotic excess the greater the semiotic excess, the more interpretations possible. Producerly an open writerly text that is also popular; it relies on audience members already possessing certain interpretive competencies, which they apply in a self-interested productive way. polysemy. The notion that a text is open to multiple interpretations and meanings.