SOCA02H3 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: World Trade Organization, Roland Robertson, Anthony Giddens

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Published on 21 Apr 2013
School
UTSC
Department
Sociology
Course
SOCA02H3
Professor
SOCA Chapter 9
The Creation of a Global Village
o Travelling 30 years ago: see travel agent, need passport, visa, withdraw money,
travellers cheques
o Now it is much easier don’t need visas in most places, have credit cards, people
speak English in more places, there are McDonalds everywhere
The Triumphs and Tragedies of Globalization
Back then, phone international calls were very expensive now have
Skype
World’s population and number of tourists has increased
o Globalization may be increasing inequality between rich and poor countries also
may be hurting local cultures and the natural environment
o Globalization is a form of imperialism the economic domination of one
country by another
o Globalization puts the world under control of powerful commercial interests,
contributes to homogenization of the world, domination of powerful countries
The sources and contours of globalization
o Global commodity chain: worldwide network of labour and production whose end
result is a finished commodity
Sources of globalization:
Technology
o In terms of international trade or travel, technological progress is an important
part of globalization we can move things and information over long distances
quickly and inexpensively
Politics
o Advanced technology could not bring globalization by itself
o E.g. South Korea vs. North Korea are both the same distance away from North
America, but we know nothing about North Korea. The reason Canadians know
about South Korea and have ties with them is political; South Korean government
has been an ally of Canada since the Korean War
Economics
o Transnational corporations (multinational or international corporations) differ
from traditional corporations:
Traditional
Transnational
Rely on domestic labour and production
Rely on foreign labour and production
Extract natural resources or manufacture
industrial goods
Emphasize skills and advances in design,
technology, and management
Sell to domestic markets
Depend on world markets
Rely on established marketing and sales
outlets
Depend on massive advertising campaigns
Work with or under national governments
Autonomous from national governments
o Technological, political, and economic factors do not work independently in
leading to globalization
o E.g. Marlboro cigarettes by Philip Morris company were doing very well in the
U.S. until 1970s. After this, got a U.S. trade representative to dismantle trade
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barriers in Asian countries. He threatened legal action for breaking international
trade law and said the U.S. would stop Asian exports until they could sell
American cigarettes there, showing economics and politics work together to
globalize the world.
A world like the U.S.?
o Globalization homogenizes societies
o McDonaldization: the process by which the principles of the fast-food restaurant
are coming to dominate more and more sectors of American society as well as the
rest of the world
Because of this, values of efficiency, calculability and predictability have
spread from North America to the entire planet
o Globalization is making the world a homogeneous place based on North
American values
o Glocalization: simultaneous homogenization of some aspects of life and the
strengthening of some local differences under the impact of globalization
E.g. McDonald’s serves different foods in different countries
o Regionalization: the division of the world into different and often competing
economic, political, and cultural areas
o World trade is unevenly distributed
o 3 main trade blocs contain over 1/5 of the world’s countries and account for more
than ¾ of world economic activity measured by gross domestic product:
Asian bloc dominated by Japan and China
North American bloc U.S.
European bloc Germany
Globalization and its discontents: anti-globalization and anti-Americanism
o Jihad vs. McWorld
Jihad = striving or struggle
o Islamic fundamentalism = most far-reaching and violent of many reactions against
globalization throughout the world
o World Trade Organization (WTO) was set up to encourage and referee global
commerce
The history of globalization
o Martin Albrow: “global age” is only a few decades old
o Globalization is the result of industrialization and modernization
o Anthony Giddens: World War I and the Great Depression undermined the
globalization of the late 19th and early 20th centuries
Incited racism, protectionism and military build-up leading to Nazi and
communist dictatorships leading to WWII
o Roland Robertson: globalization is as old as civilization itself and is the cause of
modernization
o Colonialism: the control of developing societies by more developed, powerful
societies
Development and Underdevelopment Levels and Trends in Global Inequity
o Shifting from national to global level bigger gap between rich and poor
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Document Summary

Back then, phone international calls were very expensive now have. The sources and contours of globalization: global commodity chain: worldwide network of labour and production whose end result is a finished commodity. Technology: in terms of international trade or travel, technological progress is an important part of globalization we can move things and information over long distances quickly and inexpensively. Politics: advanced technology could not bring globalization by itself, e. g. South korea vs. north korea are both the same distance away from north. America, but we know nothing about north korea. The reason canadians know about south korea and have ties with them is political; south korean government has been an ally of canada since the korean war. Economics: transnational corporations (multinational or international corporations) differ from traditional corporations: Emphasize skills and advances in design, technology, and management. Autonomous from national governments: technological, political, and economic factors do not work independently in leading to globalization, e. g.

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