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Chapter 9

PSY240H1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 9: Hallucination, Dysthymia, Psychomotor Retardation

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Martha Mc Kay

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Chapter 9 – Mood Disorders
Bipolar disorder was once called manic-depression
Mania – great energy and enthusiasm for everything, zzing over with ideas talking and thinking
so fast that her friends could not keep up with
Depression – joy is drained from life
Bipolar disorderdepression with mania
Unipolar disorder – depression with NO MANIA
People who develop mood disorders experience highs and lows that most of us can only imagine
Symptoms of Depression
1. Emo%onal symptoms
-> sadness; not typical sadness that we all feel some%mes but deep unrelen%ng pain
-> usually lost interest in doing everything (called anhedonia)
2. Physiological and behavioural symptoms
-> bodily func%ons are disrupted
-> changes in appe%te, sleep, ac%vity levels
-> some people lose appe%te, some people tend to eat more like binge ea%ng
-> some sleep all day; some has insomnia called early morning wakening where they awaken at
3 or 4 am and cannot go back to sleep
-> slowed down called psychomotor retarda#on (walk more slowly, gesture more slowly and talk
more slowly and quietly
-> more accidents because they cannot react to crises as quickly as necessary to avoid them
-> lack energy and feel chronically fa%gued
-> some have psychomotor agita#on instead of retarda%on (cannot sit s%ll, may move around or
dget aimlessly)
3. Cogni%ve symptoms
-> thoughts lled with themes of worthlessness, guilt, hopelessness, suicide
-> trouble concentra%ng and making decisions
-> severe cases: lose complete touch with reality, experience delusions and hallucina%ons
Delusion – beliefs with no basis in reality
Hallucina#on – involve seeing, hearing, or feeling things that are not real
The Diagnosis of Unipolar Depressive Disorders
2 categories of unipolar depression: major depression, dysthymic disorder
Major depression: experience either depressed mood or loss of interest in usual ac%vi%es, plus
at least four other symptoms of depression chronically for at least two weeks; these symptoms
have to be severe enough to interfere with the person’s ability to func%on in everyday life
Dysthymic disorder – less severe form of depressive disorder than is major depression, but more
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