SPA100Y1 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: British Thermal Unit

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SPANISH SPA100Y1 NOTES
CHAPTER 2
(2.1) GENDER RULES
In Spanish, there are masculine and feminine words. These are called genders of the noun.
(A) MASCULINE
Generally, words ending in { -o, -ma, -al, -or, -ente, -ante, -el } are commonly masculine.
EXAMPLES COMMON EXCEPTIONS
el pelo (hair)la mano (hand)
el animal (animal)la labor (labour)
el color (colour)la gente (people)
el accidente (accident)
el problema (problem)
el papel (paper)
Also, if a word does not fit any of the rules above, yet ends with o + consonant, they are
masculine.
(B) FEMININE
Generally, words ending in { -a, -ión, -umbre, -e, -d, -z } are commonly feminine.
EXAMPLES COMMON EXCEPTIONS
la fecha (date for calendar)el día (day)
la canción (song)el mapa (map)
la televisión (television)el avión (airplane)
la muchedumbre (crowd)el lapíz (pencil)
la serie (series)
la universidad (university)
la luz (light)
Also, if a word does not fit any of the rules above, yet ends with a + consonant, they are
feminine.
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(C) UNISEX / SWITCHABLE GENDER NOUNS
Words that refer to a job, profession or hobby (such as a teacher) have switchable genders,
depending on the person(s) being addressed. They usually end in { -ista or -ante }. For instance:
FOR MALES FOR FEMALES
el periodista (male journalist)la periodista (female journalist)
el turista (male tourist)la turista (female tourist)
el pianista (male pianist)la pianista (female pianist)
el estudiante (male student)la estudiante (female student)
(D) CHANGING GENDERS
ONLY FOR nouns referring to people (e.g.: professions, hobbies, descriptions, relation etc…),
and/or adjectives can you change the gender of a word. To do so, you must, either:
(D1) WORDS ENDING IN: -o
To change masculine words ending in -o into feminine words, you just switch -o to -a.
Example: el chico (boy) » la chica (girl) or rubio (blond boy) » rubia (blond girl)
(D2) WORDS ENDING IN: -a
To change feminine words ending in -a into masculine words, you just switch -a to -o.
Example: la hermana (sister) » el hermano (brother)
(2.2) PLURAL RULES
Just like in English, in Spanish, there are multiple plural rules.
(A) VOWEL ENDING WORDS
If a word ends in a vowel, you add sto make it plural. For instance:
la mano » las manos (hand(s))
la hora » las horas (hour(s))
el libro » los libros (book(s))
(B) CONSONANT ENDING WORDS
If a word ends in a consonant (except s), you add es to make it plural. For instance:
la ocasión » las ocasiónes (occasion(s))
el papel » los papeles (paper(s))
el joven » los jóvenes (youth(s))
(C) WORDS ENDING INS
If the word already ends in s in singular form, then the word remains unchanged in plural form.
For instance: el lunes » los lunes (Monday(s))
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