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PSYC-1000 (13)
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Chapter 1

Intro Psych Chapter One.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC-1000
Professor
Mike Lee
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter One: What is Psychology? Rene' Descartes (1596-1650)  Does perception accurately reflect reality?  How is sensation turned into perception? Philosophers didn't have "scientific" ways of studying these problems. Dual Roots of Psychology Philosophy - Questions Natural Science - Methods Prior to 1879 -Physiology and philosophy scholars studied questions of the mind. -Wilhelm Wundt (1832-1920) University of Leipzig, Germany  Campaigned to make psychology and independent science.  Established the first laboratory of psychology in 1879. Wundt's International Influence -Leipzig, the place to study psychology until Wundt's graduates set up labs elsewhere. -G. Stanley Hall (1846-1924), John Hopkins University established the first psych lab in the US 1883. Between 1883-1893 24 new labs were established in North America. -The University of Toronto established the first in Canada in 1881. The Battle of the "Schools" -Two intellectual schools of thought regarding the science of psychology. 1. Structuralism: led by Edward Titchener; focussed on analyzing consciousness into basic elements. Thoughts, sensations. Introspection: careful, systematic observations of one's conscious experience. 2. Functionalism: led by William James (influenced by Darwin); focussed on investigating the function/ purpose of consciousness. Freud and Pscyhoanalysis (1856-1939) 3. -Proposes the idea of the unconscious- thoughts, memories and desires exist below conscious awareness and exert an influence on our behaviour. -He also proposed conscious, subconscious, and unconscious levels. Gestalt Psychology -Wholes versus multiple individual elements -Shouldn't dissect an experience into separate elements to discover truths-instead, look at the "whole". -Phi phenomenon Behaviorism: Redefining Psychology -Problems of the "unseen"; you can't see the mind -John B Watson (1878-1958): U.S. was the founder of behaviorism -Psychology=the scientific study of behaviour -Behaviour= overt or observable responses or activities. -Made psychology more scientific because you are able to test what you can see. -The study f the consciousness was abandoned. The Cognitive Revolution: The Return of the Cognition -Putting psyche back in psychology -1950s & 60s brought the invention of computers (almost a model of the mind) and memory research. -How children think, language, problem solving-John Piget. Contemporary Psychology Psychology: the scientific study of the mind and behaviour. -Permits the study of virtually every aspect of human behaviour and the human experience. - -Given its complexity, have variety of perspectives. There are
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