Prenatal and Childbirth Notes.docx

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2700A/B
Treena Orchard

Childhood Health October 2, 2013 Jessica Hogle Berk 2008: 65-71, 83-87 Prenatal Environmental Issues  Teratogens o Refers to any environmental agent that causes damage during the prenatal period o Harm done by these agents not always straightforward. Depends on following factors:  Dose: larger doses over time periods usually have more negative effects  Heredity: Genetic makeups of the mother and the developing organism play an important role. Some individuals are better able to withstand harmful environments  Other negative influences: the presence of several negative factors at once, such as poor nutrition, lack of medical care, and additional teratogens, can worsen the impact of a single harmful agent  Age: Effects of teratogens vary with the age of the organism at time of exposure.  Sensitive period concept—limited time span in which a part of the body or behavior is biologically prepared to develop rapidly and therefore is especially sensitive to its surroundings. If environment is harmful, then damage occurs, and recovery is difficult and sometimes impossible  Period of the zygote (before implantation) teratogens rarely have an impact and if they do its usually dies  Embryonic period is time when serious defects are most likely to occur because the foundations for all body parts are being laid down  Fetal period: damage usually minor, but organs such as brain, eyes, and genitals can still be strongly affected o Prescription and nonprescription drugs  In 60’s sedative called thalidomine was widely available in Canada, Europe, South America  When taken 4-6 weeks after conception. The drug produced major deformities of the embryo’s arms and legs, ears, heart, kidneys, and genitals  7000 infants worldwide affected  Resulted in children scoring below average in intelligence  Maybe drug damaged central nervous system directly or intellectual development  DES between 1945-1970; widely prescribed to prevent miscarriages  Caused high rates in cancer among women in early adulthood, malformations of uterus, and infertility  Men increased risk of genital abnormalities, cancer  Today, Accutane, used to treat acne, most widely used potent teratogenic drug  Any drug with a molecule small enough to penetrate the placental barrier can enter the embryonic or fetal bloodstream  Heavy caffeine intake is associated with low birth weight, miscarriage, and newborn withdrawal symptoms o Illegal Drugs  3-7% of American and Canadian babies born in large cities, and 1-2% of all North American newborns, have been exposed to cocaine prenatally  Heroin, cocaine, or methadone addicted babies at risk of prematurity, low birth weight, physical defects, breathing problems, and death around time of birth  Some children get better while other remain jittery or distracted (stress). Kind of parenting they receive may explain why problems persist for some but not for others  Marijuana most widely used illegal drug, has been linked to low birth weight and smaller head size o Tobacco  17% of Canadian women smoke during pregnancy  Best known effect of smoking during pregnancy s low birth weight  Even quitting during last trimester reduces likelihood that infant will be born underweight and suffer form future problems  Constricts blood vessels, lessens blood flow to the uterus, and causes placenta to grow abnormally which reduces nutrients being transferred to fetus, less weight gain  Rai
More Less

Related notes for Health Sciences 2700A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.