Jan 29 textbook reading - aging.docx

10 Pages
Unlock Document

Western University
Health Sciences
Health Sciences 2711A/B
Aleksandra Zecevic

Jan 29 textbook reading  Chapter 16: emotional and social development in middle adulthood – 418-423 - Midlife is a time of increased generativity – giving to and guiding younger generations - Exuberance displays the deep sense of satisfaction they derive from generative activities - 40’s and 50’s build on earlier strengths and intensified their commitment to leaving a legacy for those who would come after them - Increasing awareness of limited time left prompts them to reevaluate the meaning of their lives - Midlife development in the US survey (MIDUS) – conducted in the mid 1990’s contributed enormously to understanding of midlife emotions and social development - MIDUS has greatly expanded our knowledge of the multidimensional and multidirectional nature of midlife change and it promises to be a rich source of information for many years to come Erikson’s theory: Generativity vs. stagnation - Psychological conflict of midlife according to erikson is generativity vs. stagnation - Generativity: involves reaching out to others in ways that give to and guide the next generation - is underway in early adulthood, but it greatly expands during midlife, when commintment extends beyond oneself and ones life partner to a larger group – family, community, or society - Generativity – is meant to encompass everything generated that can outlive the self and ensure society’s continuity and improvement: children, ideas, works of are. - Can be generative in other family relationships, as mentors in the workplace, as volunteer endeavors and through many forms of productivity and creativity. - Generativity brings together personal desire and cultural demands - Feel the need to be needed – to attain symbolic immortality by making a contribution that will survive their death - Desire may stem from a deep-seated evolutionary urge to protect and advance the next generation - Society imposes a social clock for generativity in midlife requiring adults to take responsibility for the next generation through their roles as parents, teachers, mentors, leaders, and coordinators - Erikson’s – culture beliefs in the species – the conviction that life is good and worthwhile, even in the face of human destructiveness and deprivation – is a major motivator of generative action - Stagnation: the negative outcome of this stage is stagnation. May feel a sense of stagnation b/c, lack interest in young people, through focus on what they can get from others rather than what they can give and through taking little interest in being productive at work, developing their talents or bettering the world in other ways - people attain certain life foals such as marriage, children, and career success they may become self-centered and self-indulgent - At the same time participants expressed greater concern about againg, increased security with their identities and stronger sense of competence - Highly generative people appear especially well-adjusted, low in anxiety and depression, and high in autonomy, self-acceptance, and life satisfaction; and likelu to have successful marriages and close friends - More open to differing viewpoints, possess leadership qualities, desire more from work than financial reqards and care greatly about the welfare of their children, their partner, their aging parents, and the wider society - Generativity is associated with more effective child rearing - Adults of all backgrounds, individual differences in contects for generativity exist - Having children seems to foster mens generative development more than womens - Fathers tend to score higher in generativity than childless men - Low SES men with troubled pasts, fatherhood can provide a contect for highly generative positive life change - African americans are more engaged in certain types of generativity than Caucasians – more involved in religious group activities, offer more social support to members of their community and are more likely to view themselves as roles models and sources of wisdom for their children - Highly generative middle aged adults often indicate that as children and adolescents they internalized moral values rooted in a religious tradition which provided lifelong encouragement for generative actions Other theories of psychosocial development in midlife Levinson’s seasons of life - Middle adulthood beings with a transitional period (40-45), during which people evaluate their success in meeting early adulthood goals. Realizing that from now on, more time will lie behind than ahead, they regard the remaining years as increasingly precious - As a result, people make some drastic revisiions in their life structure, they must confront four developmental tasks, each requires the individual to reconcile two opposing tendencies within the self, attaining greater internal harmony • Young-old: middle aged, must seek a new way of being both young and old. Giving up certain youthful qualities, retaining and transforming others, and finding positive meaning in being older. – most middle aged women express concern about appearing less attractive  Middle aged men – in particular non college educated men, who often hold blue collar jobs requiring physical strength and stamina – are also highly sensitive to physical aging  Compared with previous midlife cohorts, boomers are especially interested in controlling physical changes – a desire that has helped energize a huge industry of anti-aging cosmetic products and medical procedures • Destruction-Creation: middle ages person focuses on way he or she has acted destructively and how others have done the same – past hurtful acts toward family members, friends, and co-workers are countered by a strong desire to participate in activities that advance human welfare, thereby leaving a legacy for future generations • Masculinity-femininity: must create better balance b.t masculine and feminine parts of the self. – For men this means greater acceptance of feminine traits for nurturance and caring, which enhance close relationships and compassionate exercise of authority in the workplace. For women, in means being more open about masculine characteristics of autonomy and assertiveness. • Engagement-separateness: forge a better balance b/t engagement and with the external world and separateness. For men and women with good careers this means reducing concern with ambition and achievement and attending more fully to the self. - Those who flexibly modify their identities in response to age-related changes yet maintain a sense of self-continuity are more aware of their own thoughts and feelings and are higher in self-esteem - Those who live in poverty have their energies are directed towards survival rather than realistically approaching age-related changes - Even adults whose jobs are secure and who live in pleasant neighborhood find that employment conditions restrict possibilities for growth by placing too much emphasis on productivity and profit and too little on meaning of work - Yet these are far less available to women than men – many find compensating rewards in mentoring younger workers and in moving to the senior generations of their families Valliant’s adaptation to life - Followed participants past the half century mark - Most successful and best adjusted entered a calmer, quieter time of life - Passing the torch – concern that the positive aspects of their culture survive – became a major preoccupation - This stabilizing force holds in check too rapid change sparked by the questioning and challenging of adolescents and young adults - They focus on longer term, and less on personal goals, such as the state of human relations in their society - And they become more philosophical accepting the fact that not all problems can be solved in their life time Is there a midlife crisis? - Experienced substantial inner turmoil during the transition to middle adulthood. - These contrasting findings raise the question of how much personal upheaval actually accompanies entry to midlife - Are self-doubt and stress especially great during forties and stress especially great during the forties and do they prompt major restructuring of the personality as the term midlife crisis - Only ¼ MIDUS responded yes to having a midlife crisis - Some reported a crisis well before they turned 40, others well after age 50 - And most attributed it not to age but rather to challenging life events - Life regrets: attractive opportunites they did not pursure or lifestyle changes they did not make - In two investigations of women in their early 40’s, those who acknowleged regret without making life changes, compared to those who modified their lives, reported less favourable psychological well-being and poorer physical health overtime - Ppl’s interpretation of regrets plays a major role in well-being. Mature, contended adults acknowledged a past characterized by some losses but are able to disengage from them, investing in personally rewarding goals - About half expressed at least one regret - Compared to those who had not resolved their disappointments, those who have come to terms with them, or had put the best face on things, reported better physical health and greater life satisfaction - Those who cannot modify their life paths often look for the silver lining in life’s difficulties - Typically have had early adulthoods in which gender roles, family pressures, or low income severly limited their ability to fulfill personal needs and goals Chapter 18: Emotional and social development in late adulthood - Having friends is an especially strong predictor of mental health in late adulthood - Even when things were hard – the time of life best always seemed to be the one I was currently experiencing - Extending the multi-directionality of development – old age is a time of pleasure and tranquility, when children are grown, life’s work is nearly done and responsibilities are lightened Erikson’s Theory: Ego integrity versus Despair - Ego integrity vs. despair: involves coming to terms with one’s life. Adults who arrive at a sense of integrity feel whole, complete, and satisfied with their achievements. They have adapted to inevitable triumphs and disappointments and realize that the paths they followed, abandoned and never selected were necessary for fashioning a meaningful life
More Less

Related notes for Health Sciences 2711A/B

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.