Psychology 1000 Chapter Notes - Chapter 14: Dream Interpretation, Psychodynamics, Limbic System

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Published on 10 Nov 2011
School
Western University
Department
Psychology
Course
Psychology 1000
Professor
CHAPTER 14: TREATMENT OF PSYCHOLOGICAL DISORDERS
> THE HELPING RELATIONSHIP
Basic Goal of all treatment is to help people change maladaptive, self-defeating thought,
feelings and behaviour patterns so that they can live happier and more productive lives
Counseling and clinical psychologists: typically hold a PhD usually 5+ years of
training in psychological assessment techniques
Psychiatrists: medical doctors who specialize in psychotherapy and in biomedical
treatments such as drug therapy
> PSYCHODYNAMIC THERAPIES:
The psychodynamic approach to psychotherapy focuses on internal conflict and
unconscious factors that underlie maladaptive behaviour
Psychoanalysis
Psychoanalysis: Freud’s theory of personality as well as the specific approach to
treatment that he developed
Goal is to help achieve insight: the conscious awareness of the psychodynamics that
underlie their problems
oPermits clients to adjust their behaviour to current life situations rather than
continuing maladaptive routines
oAs client deals with buried emotions and conflicts, the psychic energy that was
previously devoted to keeping the unconscious under control can be released and
redirected to more adaptive ways of living
Free association: client reclines on a couch and gives verbal reports without censorship
of any thoughts, feelings, or images that entered awareness (analyst sits behind client)
Dream interpretation: Dreams express impulses, fantasies, and wishes that client’s
defenses keep in the unconscious
oFree associate to each element of the dream and to help the client arrive at an
understanding of what the symbols in the dream really represent
Resistance: defensive maneuvers that hinder the process of therapy
oMay experience difficulty in free-associating, coming late to appointment or
avoid certain topics
oA sign that anxiety-arousing sensitive material is being approached
Transference: when the client responds irrationally to the analyst as if
he or she was an important figure from the client’s past
oBrings out the repressed feelings that the therapist can point out to the
client
oPositive transference: when the client transfers feelings of intense
affection, dependency or love to the analyst
oNegative transference: involves irrational expressions of anger, hatred or
disappointment
oUntil transference reactions are analyzed/resolved there can be no full
recovery
Interpretation: any statement by the therapist intended to provide the client
with insight into his or her behaviour or dynamics
oGeneral rule in psychoanalytic treatment is to interpret what is already
near the surface and just beyond the client’s current awareness deep analysis
will not be understood or helpful to the patient
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oIt is the patient who must ultimately arrive at the insight
Brief Psychodynamic Therapies
About half of clients approve within 8 sessions, and most of the therapeutic effects occur
within 26 sessions
It becomes very expensive and time consuming
Brief psychodynamic psychotherapies:
Employ insight and interpretation at a more focused and active fashion
Sit face-to-face conversation replaces free-association
Aimed at helping to deal w/ specific life problems
only a few sessions a week
Interpersonal therapy: (15-20 sessions) focus on client’s current interpersonal
problems (marriage, etc.)
> HUMANISTIC PSYCHOTHERAPIES
View humans as capable of consciously controlling their actions and taking responsibility
for choices and behaviour
Believe everyone has inner resources for self-healing and personal growth, and that
disorders reflect a blocking of these resources
oBrought on by distorted perceptions, lack of awareness about feelings, negative
self-image
Focus on present and future rather than past
Seen as a human encounter between equals
Goal is to create an environment where the client can engage in self-exploration and
remove the barriers that block their natural tendencies toward personal growth
oBarriers often result from standards being set too high in childhood
Client-centered Therapy
Developed by Carl Rogers stressed the relationship between client and therapist
3 important therapist attributes:
1. unconditional positive regard: a communicated attitude of total and
unconditional acceptance towards the client that convey their intrinsic worth
2. empathy: the ability of a therapist to view the world through the clients’ eyes
and to understand the clients’ emotions
3. genuineness: ability of a therapist to honestly express their feelings to a client
when all 3 attributes are present they create a situation which the client feels accepted,
understood and free to explore without judgment or rejection
Gestalt Therapy
Frederick S. Perls concentrate on “whole” experiences
Goal: bring ‘background’ feelings, wishes and thoughts, into immediate awareness so the
client can be “whole” again.
Empty chair technique: client asked to imagine someone sitting in the chair and carry a
conversation role-playing for both themselves and the absent person
omakes ppl aware of unresolved issues that affect relationships and their lives
Unlike Rogers, who was committed to research that would help identify the factors that
contribute to therapeutic success, such as tape recorded sessions, Perls used an
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antiscientific method could not do systematic research on the effectiveness of Gestalt
therapy, and it began to wane in the 70s
> COGNITIVE THERAPIES
- focus on the of irrational and self-defeating thought patterns
- tries to help clients discover and change the cognitions that underlie their
problems
- do not emphasize the importance of unconscious psychodynamic processes
- clients need help in identifying the beliefs, ideas, and self-statements that trigger
maladaptive emotions and behaviours
Albert Ellis’s Rational-Emotive Therapy:
ABCD model:
-A activating event that triggers the emotion
-B belief system that underlies the way a person appraises the event
-C emotional and behavioural consequences of the appraisal
-D disputing or challenging belief system to change maladaptive emotions
Example: a young man is turned down for a date.
- the woman’s refusal is not the cause of the feeling of rejection and depression
-instead it is his believe that he needs to be loved and accepted that caused it
- Rational-emotive therapists introduce clients to common irrational ideas and train
them to reject them
-Clients are given homework assignments to analyze and change self-statements
oeg. A shy person must go to a party and practice counteracting social anxiety
techniques
Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
- help clients identify and reprogram their over-learned “automatic” thought
patterns
- his contributions to the understanding and treatment of depression has made his
cognitive theory the treatment of choice for depression and anger and anxiety disorders
-self-instructional training: a cognitive coping approach of giving adaptive
instructions to oneself very influential to stress and coping
> BEHAVIOUR THERAPIES
- denied the importance of inner dynamics
- they insisted:
1. behaviour disorders are learned in the same ways normal behaviours are
2.these behaviours can be unlearned by application of principles derived from
research on classical conditioning and operant conditioning
Classical Conditioning Treatments
- used in two major ways:
oto reduce, decondition, anxiety responses
ocondition new anxiety responses to a particular class of
Exposure Therapy: An Extinction Approach
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Document Summary

> psychodynamic therapies: the psychodynamic approach to psychotherapy focuses on internal conflict and unconscious factors that underlie maladaptive behaviour. Transference: when the client responds irrationally to the analyst as if. Brings out the repressed feelings that the therapist can point out to the. Positive transference: when the client transfers feelings of intense o client o affection, dependency or love to the analyst o disappointment o recovery. Negative transference: involves irrational expressions of anger, hatred or. Until transference reactions are analyzed/resolved there can be no full with insight into his or her behaviour or dynamics. Interpretation: any statement by the therapist intended to provide the client o. General rule in psychoanalytic treatment is to interpret what is already near the surface and just beyond the client"s current awareness deep analysis will not be understood or helpful to the patient o. It is the patient who must ultimately arrive at the insight.

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