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Chapter 10

Psychology 1000 Chapter 10: Psych chapter 10


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYCH 1000
Professor
Dr.Mike
Chapter
10

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Psych chapter 10
Intelligence
The ability to acquire knowledge, to think and reason effectively, and to deal adaptively with the
environment
Intelligence in Historical Perspective
Galton and Binet
Sir Francis Galton: Quantifying Mental Ability
Thought people had inherited mental constitutions
Dismissed that more successful people had come from privileged environments
Measured nervous system efficiency unrelated to mental ability
Alfred Binet’s Mental Tests
Assumed mental abilities developed with age
Assumed that the rate at which people gain mental competence is a characteristic of the person and
is constant over time ex. Child lagging at 5 will also be lagging at 10
Asked teachers what questions kids at a certain age would be able to solve
Came up with mental age
William Stern
Intelligence Quotient (IQ) ratio of mental age to chronological age, multiplied by 100
Therefore, a child performing exactly at their age would have an IQ of 100
Mental age is no longer used today
IQ is based off a person’s performance relative to the scores of other people the same age
100 is the average performance of the age group
Binet’s Legacy: An Intelligence-Testing Industry Emerges
Lewis Terman made the Stanford-Binet test
Yielded a single IQ score
Relied mostly on verbal skills
Army alpha a verbally oriented test was used in the army
Army beta was developed because some men were unable to read
Lorge-Throndike test and Otis-Lennon School Ability Test were used in schools
Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) was made by Wechsler
Thought intelligence should be measured as a group of related verbal and non-verbal skills
Also, made WISC, WPPSI, and revised popular versions (WAIS-III) and (WISC-IV)
Stanford-Binet was also revised to add a wider range of mental abilities
The Nature of Intelligence
Psychometric approach attempts to map the structure of intellect and to discover the kinds of
mental competencies that underlie test performance

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Cognitive process approach studies the specific thought processes that underlie those mental
competencies
The Psychometric Approach: The Structure of Intellect
Psychometrics the statistical of psychological tests
Tries to identify and measure the abilities that underlie individual differences in performance
Factor Analysis
Researchers try to correlate different mental abilities together by doing cluster tests
If some tests are highly correlated with each other they used the same mental ability if they were
different they involved different mental abilities
Factor Analysis reduces a large number of measures to a smaller number of clusters, or factor,
with each cluster containing variables that correlate highly with one another but less highly with
variables in other clusters
Allows is to infer the underlying characteristic that presumably accounts for the links among the
variables in the cluster
Cannot tell us what the two sets are measuring
Some clusters may just be lower correlated than others and share a more general mental ability
The g Factor: Intelligence as General Mental Capacity
G factor General intelligence
Intelligence was affected by the G factor and by special abilities required to preform the particular
task
The same general metal ability is related to success in educational and work life
Intelligence as Specific Mental Abilities
Thurstone challenged the centrality of the g factor
Human performance depended on 7 distinct abilities
Primary Mental Abilities the 7 abilities that human performance depends on
Performance would be more influenced by a skill than a g factor
Space Reasoning about visual scenes
Verbal Comprehension Understanding verbal statements
Word Fluency Producing verbal statements
Number Facility Dealing with numbers
Perceptual Speed Recognizing visual patterns
Rote Memory Memorizing
Reasoning Dealing with novel problems
Crystallized and Fluid Intelligence
Crystallized intelligence (gc) the ability to apply previously acquired knowledge to current
problems
Depends on the ability to retrieve previously learned information and problem solving schemas from
long term memory
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Dependent on previous learning and practice
Fluid Intelligence (gf) the ability to deal with novel problem-solving situations for which personal
experience does not provide a solution
Involves inductive reasoning and creative problem-solving skills
Dependant on efficient functioning of the central nervous system
Requires ability to reason abstractly, think logically and manage information in short term memory
As we grow older we go from fluid intelligence to crystallized
Performance of crystallized intelligence improves during adulthood and is stable late into adulthood
Fluid intelligence declines late in adulthood
Different brain areas are stimulated
Carroll’s Three-Stratum Model: A Modern Synthesis
Three stratum theory of cognitive abilities Three levels of mental skills, general, broad, and narrow
arranged in a hierarchical
At the top is the g factor that underlies most mental activity
Below are the eight broad intellectual factors
Finally, there are 70 highly specific cognitive abilities
Cognitive Process Approaches: The Nature of Intelligent Thinking
Cognitive process theories explores the specific information-processing and cognitive processes
that underlie intellectual ability
Triarchic theory of intelligence addresses both the psychological processes involved in intelligent
behaviour and the diverse forms that intelligence can take
Divides the cognitive processes that underlie intelligent behaviour into three specific
components
Metacompenents Higher order processes used to plan and regulate task performance
Include problem solving skills such as identifying problems, formulating hypotheses, and
strategies, testing them logically and evaluating performance feedback
Performance components The actual mental processes used to perform the task
Include perceptual processing, retrieving appropriate memories ad schemas from long term
memory, and generating responses
Knowledge acquisition components Allows us to learn from our experiences, store information in
memory and combine new insights with previously acquired information
Sternberg believes there is more than one type of intelligence
Analytical intelligence Involves the kinds of academically oriented problem solving skills
measured by traditional intelligence tests
Practical intelligence Skills needed to cope with everyday demands and manage oneself and
other people effectively
Creative intelligence Comprises the mental skills needed to deal adaptively with novel
problems
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