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Chapter 11

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Sociology 2152A/B
William Marshall

Sociology 2152b Chapter 11 • Cities and Immigrants o Cities have been mosaics of ethnic communities o At times, minorities even became majority (Milwaukee back in 1850) o Great Immigration (1880-1910) about 1 million immigrants came to North America and 7 out of 10 settled in cities o In recent years, Canada and U.S has increase number of immigrants coming o The cities with the highest % of immigrants were Miami, Toronto, Los Angeles, New York, Vancouver, and San Francisco o Between 1990-2010, the metro areas with the strongest economic growth came from cities that also have the largest portion of immigrants o Significantly, the immigrant share of economic output closely matches the immigrant proportion of the population o Critics argue that some urban centers receive the lion’s share of immigrants, and that their concentrated presence strains the community’s social fabric and places an economic burden on those areas in education, health and welfare o While immigrants in general may enrich the nation, their high numbers and the growing proportion of poorly educated, low-skill workers have negative consequences for low-skilled native workers • Ethnic Enclaves and Ethnic Identity o The new immigrants create their own ethnic enclaves and distinctive social institutions o E.G Chinatown, Korean Town, J-town o Some people avoid it, hate it, some people love it, want to visit it o From 1861-1960, vast majority of immigrants to U.S came from Canada and Europe, differences between immigrants and local people were mostly ethnic (different in cultural tradition but not race) o Since 1960 however, vast majority of immigrants are of different colors: Africa, Asia, Latin America o Racial diversity as well as ethnic differences compounds the problems of acceptance and rejection • Ethnic Change o A city’s spatial structure reflects chain migration o Chain migration = settle near family and friends o A vibrant ethnic community evolves to help new immigrants “settle in” and “make it” o Immigrants also try to seek to be a part of their adopted country, virtually all immigrants gradually identify more and more with their new country o Invasion-succession takes places as new generation move out from the their old ethnic neighborhood, making room for new immigrants o New York City  New York has stood as a symbol of racial and ethnic diversity  New York still holds the first place in the U.S as the destination for immigrants  In 2010, about 186,000 immigrants settled in the New York City metro area  Today, Lower Manhattan’s Chinatown is 5x the size it was in 1965 both in physical size and in numbers and is home to about 150,000 people  More than 1 million Chinese Americans live in NYC  New York surpasses all other U.S cities with the most Asian-owned businesses o Los Angeles  Half of LA’s residents are Hispanic, 2/3 are of Mexican American  The city now has more Mexican people in the whole Western Hemisphere except for Mexico City and Guadalajara o Toronto = considered to be the largest and most racially/ethnically diverse city • Racial and Ethnic Minorities o In past generations, cities were home to fewer different groups than they are today o Now, virtually any major North American city is a multicultural place, with dozens of immigrant groups from all parts of the world o The early history of people of color in North American Cities is primary the story th of people of African descent living in the U.S. Small numbers during the 19 century, than large numbers came in the 20 century o In the U.S, black call themselves African American, in Canada though, blacks call themselves Black Canadian o Blacks th  By the 19 century, Black slavery in Canada has ended and Canada became the destination for 10 of thousands of fugitive slaves from the U.S  Since the 20 century, black immigrants from other countries surpassed immigrants coming from the U.S to settle in Canada  More than 300,000 blacks in Canada  Most blacks live in metro areas of Toronto, Halifax, Montreal, Vancouver, Calgary, Edmonton, and Ottawa  Somewhat less likely to have college degrees and generally, their income is lower than the rest of the population  From the beginning, blacks in the U.S were in the south, mostly in rural areas, only 5% of blacks live in northern U.S during this time  The Lure of the North  The promise of schooling and better work lured blacks to the North  Segregation laws, economic hard times, and destruction of cotton crops forced many more blacks to the North  De facto segregation existed in the North just as de jure segregation existed in the South  Northern blacks were urban people, some of them poor, some of them working class, even with some in middle class  African American can immediately quadruple their income by moving north, which led to the greatest internal migration in the country’s history  The Great Migration  As cities such as Chicago, NYC, and Boston grew into industrial metropolises. African Americans saw greater opportunities than in the southern agriculture.  Northern America needed more labor and active recruits of black labor brought blacks to the North  1920, net black out migration = 1 million people  Migration slowed during the 1930s (The great depression)  Increased again when industrial production rose during WWII  Migration remained high until 1970s  Black Flight  White flight (white people leaving cities). Reason = fear of crime  Black moving out of cities are underway. Reason = chose to move south for better jobs and living conditions or else moved outward into suburbia  Except for Boston, Indianapolis, Milwaukee, and Philadelphia  One reason for the decline is black suburbanization  New Orleans is a special case (Hurricane Katrina forced a lot of blacks to relocate to other suburban)  Black Majority  In a lot states in the U.S, blacks are the majority of the population (Detroit the most at 83%)  The fact that African Americans only represent 14% of the total population in the U.S, it is unlikely that they will be the majority in other major cities in the U.S  Residential Segregation  Most African Americans typically settled in the least desirable central-city neighborhoods  Some of the blacks move out of these traditional black ethnic communities when they became more educated and have more income, but a lot remain confined and isolated in racial ghettos, esp. in the Northeast and Midwest  Although race remains a factor, ethnicity is becoming important too as more blacks are immigrating from Africa and Caribbean  (Alma Taeuber) Index of dissimilarity = index ranged from a low of zero (complete integration to host country) to a high of 100 (complete segregation)  Overall, in 1960, index of dissimilarity was 82.6%..which means that 82.6% of whites must move to another neighborhood to make blacks and whites evenly across all neighborhoods  Douglas Massey and Nancy Denton used the term hypersegregation (e.g Detroit) for the intense geographical grouping of racial groups  Hypersegregation (5 dimensions) = 1) evenness, 2) exposure, 3) clustering, 4) centralization, 5) concentration  If a group scored high in all 5 dimensions, then they are considered hypersegregation (29 metro areas fit these criteria)  Racial segregation has slowly decreased in the U.S  All cities but Miami experienced modest decline in segregation since 2000  Truly Disadvantaged  For the trapped African American, poor left behind in the inner city, the future is NOT so bright  Lack of education and communication skills = no jobs = poor  Poor inner-city residents face isolation, people avoid them = no jobs opportunity for them o Asians and Pacific Islanders  96% of Asians live in metro areas  Asians are also more likely to live in suburbs than Africans and Hispanics (almost half of them do so)  Chinese  After their initial arrival in the West coast in 1850, Chinese have been moving eastward in both U.S and Canada  Usually, they band together in low-rent urban enclaves, often situated near transportation hubs (shipping docks/railroad terminal). These areas became the famous Chinatowns that still attract a lot of immigrants and tourists  Chinatown in San Francisco where 1 out of 5 residents is Chinese is home to the largest Chinatown in North America  Vancouver is 2 where Chinese is spoken in 30% of all households  Canadians of Chinese origin are the largest ethnic group of non- European origin in Canada. They are also increasing fast, with 30,000 immigrants annually. (more than 1.2 million Chinese people in Canada now)  72% of all Chinese living in Canada live in Toronto and Vancouver  Chinese Americans and Chinese Canadians currently present a bipolar occupational distribution. About 30% are in professional and technical positions, doubles among whites. But the Chinese also over-represent in low pay low skill jobs  Median Chinese family have incomes more than the national average, but that is because they have more people in the household working, not necessarily because they have people in higher paying jobs  Filipinos  More than 3/4 of Filipino in Canada arrive in Canada after 1980, either live in Toronto or Vancouver  3 in 10 have college degrees, doubles the ratio of all Canadians  7 in 10 are employed, 10 points higher than national average  Income is $5,000 lower  Filipinos in U.S = 2.6 million, largest concentration in Hawaii  New Filipinos in the U.S tend to have better educational and occupational skills than most of their native born ethnic cohorts  Asian Indians  Asian Indian presence has been increasingly dramatically in the last few decades  With overpopulation happening in India, high migration rates are likely to continue th  Almost 3/4 of Indian immigrants are in professional or managerial positions, with the rest running convenience stores or gas stations  Most Asian Indians settle in large metro areas, most significantly in Chicago, New York, San Jose, Washington, and Central New Jersey  2 out 3 Canadian Asian Indian are foreign born, most live either in Toronto or Vancouver  ¼ have college degrees
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