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FILM 2401 (33)

Mar 20 – Canadian Broadcasting & The Canadian Sitcom .pdf

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FILM 2401
Joseph Kispal- Kovacs

March 20 – Canadian Broadcasting & The Canadian Sitcom Readings: The TV Reader Chapters 4 -7 - Chapter 4 - canada suffers from a lack of critical mass - 20th century , broadcasting was essential to maintaining canada - canadian television has been preoccupied with issues of distribution over issues of content and in canada the inflicting imperatives of economics and culture that have dominated the evolution of tv everywhere else are constantly cancelling each other out int deference to the higher national interest of self preservation - relevance of communication for analyzing the formation of a collective identity - broadcasting in canada is a public service essential to the maintenance and enhancement of national identity and cultural sovereignty - single system comprising public, private and community elements - to demonstrate equal rights, linguistic duality, multicultural and multi racial nature of canadian society and special place of aboriginal people within society - before tv there was radio - 1920 canadian commercial radio developed essentially in the private sector with stations operating in either english or french, some of them affiliated with the emerging networks in the US - canadian national railways set up the first national radio network, whose basic purpose was to entertain passengers on the long transcontinental journey from halifax to Vancouver - 1932 a conservative government adopted canadas first national broadcasting legislation, creating the canadian radio broadcasting commission (crbc) which became canadian broadcasting corporation (cbc) in 36 - goal of creating an authentic autonomous canadian broadcasting system on the periphery of the US, that system would become a vehicle for introducing american broadcasting content into canada - tension: between private capital and state over the economic basis of television, between the state and the public over the socio cultural mission of television and between dominant and alternative visions of the state over the relationship of televisions to the poetics of the nationhood - the origins - hnic - private companies were allowed to own affiliated stations, enabling the cbc to complete its two national network at lower cost - cbc tv is dependent for an important part of its revenue on advertising, public and private competition in tv has been an important factor ever since - commercial television flourished in the 60s due in no small measure to the political problems that plagued cbc during that decade - 1992 educational television accounted for some canadian 223 million in public spending - cbc led the way in canadian programming, private tv was slowly carving a place for itself, building an audience by consistently offering the met popular american programs, competing with cbc for the broadcasting rights to canadian sports classics such as football annual grey cup game and the emulating the ccd surceases in news and current affairs - must carry provisions ensure that every available canadian over the air signal in any area is offered as basic service along with a local community channel - in exchange, cable companies are authorized to distribute the there american commercial networks plus pbs - crtc was also charged with putting in place canadian ownership regulations, limiting foreign participation in canadian broadcasting companies to 20% - canadian tv is entirely canadian controlled - canadian tv industry is characterized by a high degree of concentration of owernship - development.. - crtc began licensing second private stations like global - independent citytv in toronto - create a new independent production sector & increase the visibility of publicly funded canadian programs - introduction in 82 of pay tv and in 87 speciality channels - justification for creating canadian pay tv in 82 was to provide an additional vehicle for canadian feature films but the actual percentage of canadian films offered has never been statistically significant - cable operators were authorized to provide the new range of services to all subscribers in their territory and charge accordingly - normal package is 24 hour cbc news, channels with sports, music video, weather and kids programming and tv5(french) - could chose specialized channels for pay tv in different languages or certain american channels like cnn - government controls cbc and private sphere wants it to go down to limite competition - access for and to canadian content also requires public subsidy - 1997 clear the only way to meet the goals set for canadian broadcasting was to take the broadcasting act at its word and adopt a holistic approach to the economics and policy expectations of the system as a whole—to stop treating a distribution franchise as a licence to print money, to stop agonizing over fiscial bellyaching of both private broadcasters and cbc and inset they meet their respective mandate requirements and to open new window of public service in the expanding media environment - conclusion - communication in canada has been seen as a variously binding force for national unity, a vehicle for social development an a instrument of cultural affirmation - canadian system has promoted nation building by: emphasis on publicly owned and operated national institutions, carriage rules for distribution systems, public support for production of canadian content, licensing of services to ensure that products reach their markets - must publicly own and regulate public and private industries and social and cultural objectives should be locomotive of the system - Chapter 5 - tv was thought to fade by hollywood systems - tv entered more homes, movie attendance dropped - film industry developed earlier because its technical infrastructure was less complex and because televisions came under the control of corporations primary interested in radio - pay movie network by warner bros (part of time warner entertainment) launched hbo - hollywood responded to the challenge of tav to withhold its product - instead tv developed its own forms and stars borrowed from radio - i love lucy - film industry highlight the intensity and impact of the film image through colour, 3d, cinerama and cinemascope - not until 66 did 3 us networks adopt colour schedules - hoped film would provide a special experience which television with its small budgets and high turnovers could never duplicate - film finally decided to cooperate with tv—-disney (davy crockett)—formed merch too - prototype stories made by film for tv—mash - later prototype stories for tv made by tv and movies —star trek, jetsons, mission impossible, jackass, south park, etc - hollywood discovered the blockbuster —advertising budget equals or exceeds its production costs - uses tv as part of a saturation advertising campaign to build up expectations - depends of spectacular effects - targets at males 14-25 - most fail to earn back advertising ad production costs - merchandising where the real money lies - blockbuster as a expensive advertisement for a full range of cross promotional tie ins - vcr & paycable was hollywoods revenge on tv in the 80s and 90s - vcr proved more attractive as a movie playback device - tv on demand - paycapable ives viewers control over timing, duration and frequency of viewing - now like pvr/dvr - tv must fight to retain its audience and borrowing hollywoods old tactics : flooding the market - reinforces the notion that US networks are the main stands or normal providers of tv content - creates a market for hard to see tv that frequently is not produced by networks - dvd as a preferred means to access content without paying for speciality channels - dvd reinforces network tv and undermines nature of its experience - tv content flooding market through internet - broadcast tv is free so equally free distribution via the internet - tv decided to co-operate with competitors - connecting laptop to tv to make information hub - reality tv brings teenagers and young adults by tying into the internet - forms online - or vote online or on your phone - incorporating both mediums - tv is an information hub that provides a cinematic experience with content that specifically appeals to the emergent work of gadgetry and digitization - meanwhile, back in canad
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