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HIST 2500 (33)

27 march.pdf

7 Pages

Course Code
HIST 2500
William Wicken

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24 March - 30 March Tutorials will meet. Readings: Bumsted, pp. 452-94 plus embedded texts on p. 457, 464-5, 466-7, and 482. - until early 1970 the post war era had become a time of affluence and optimism - time of affluence and optimism - characterized by nationalism anchored by strong central federal government - ‘liberalism’—delicate balancing act that accepted an economic system based on private enterprise and corporate capitalism while also attempting to provide a social welfare safety net for the nations citizens - influenced by keynesian economics - for much of the period before 1970, the liberal party had combined liberal economics with a constitutionally centralized federalism - major arguments of the federalists was the only strong national policies could deal with the problems of the economy and with the demands of minorities and not geographically embodied into provinces and regions - constitutional matters under control of canadians, economic were under international - politicians and public came to feel that all political responses were defensive reactions to unmanageable situations and that all policies were merely band aids placed over festering wounds - public trust in the nations political leaders declined as the consensus disintegrated and was not replaced by a new paradigm - cynicism became entrenched at the core of the canadian national psyche - 1973 a ceasefire agreement allowed US to withdrawal from vietnam and american process of national disillusionment continued with the watergate affair - in canada, vietnam seemed less important than the october crisis, bringing to the fore the parti quebecois, which succeeded in electing seven candidates int he 1970 quebec election - war in middle east raising oil prices and all western industrialized nations realized how much economies depended on supply of cheap oil - oil symbolized the economics of the age of affluence as well as its NA problems - cheap oil made possible the development of large, powerful and comfortable automobiles - cars, construction of roads, suburban developments, shopping malls were all major components of post war economic propriety in US and canada - some saw the car as post war progress while others saw it as a sex symbol - japanese take control of car industry in NA away from detroit—new world trading order - the canadian petroleum industry, located chiefly in alberta, was almost entirely owned and operated by multinational corporations (most being american based) - most oil consumption in canada occurred in the industrialized east, while most of the raw material was in the resource rich west, a discrepancy that exacerbated regional tensions - having achieved full recognition of collective bargaining, union organizers next moved from improved working conditions and higher wages to match the cost of living - yom kippur war, quebecers went to polls to elect a new provincial government - desirability to separate quebec - liberals won - oil and the constitution were scarcely the only issues after 1973 - demands for social insurance - government focused on privatization - goods and service tax hit the poor hard - brian mulroney could spend money on military cooperation in gulf war but constantly concerned about spending and deficit - robert bourassa - born in montreal - at unversite de montreal met andree simard - married in aug 1958 and went to london to study - taught economics at university of ottawa - first ran for elected office in 1966, winning seat in mercer riding while liberals lost their majority - bourassa joined nationalists wing of provincial liberals - bourassa won on first ballot at liberal leadership convention of 17 january 1970 and would begin his leadership career positioned ideologically halfway between pierre trudeau and rene levesque - bourassa promised 100000 jobs and was elected premier on april 29, 1970 - tried to emphasize foreign investment but got caught up in october crisis - won again in 73 and 83 - resigned in 1994 and died in 1996 - - televisions relentless search for visual images and trudeaus brillant mastery of the medium - trudeau—firmly opposed quebec separatism, french canadian federalist - treated everyone as ill-informed and irrational - robert stanfield led the tories to three successive defeats at the hands of the trudeau liberals brian mulroney entered canadian politics at the highest level without ever having held public or elected office although he had been active in the political back rooms for years - mulroney was a fluent speaker, perfectly bilingual and posses one of the richest voices ever heard in canadian politics - experienced labour lawyer and corporation executive at his best at behind the scenes conciliation - committed to better relations between canada and US which meant less economic nationalism as well as improved relations between ottawa and provinces which meant surrendering federalists pretensions - negotiated free trade agreement with US - but government spending got out of hand - gst proved to be the most unpopular tax - unlike provincial sales taxes, get meant a surcharge on nearly 20% in several provinces on most consumer spending - most provinces operated through a single dominant party that remained in office in election after election - single dominant party satisfied voters and mediated local conflict by insisting that the important battle was against external forces symbolized by the Canadian federal government - throughout the 70s federal-provincal relations were dominated by oil, quebec, and abortive constitutional reform - entrenching rights in charter were regarded as one way to reassure those who feared losing british constitutional protection - quebec did not achieve a sufficiently distinctive place in confederation to suit its demands - only quebec did not achieve a sufficiently distractive place in confederation to suit its damns - only quebec and ontario were given perpetual vetoes - parti quebec referendum on sovereignty association of 1980 - voters could support reformists social democratic zeal of the pq without signing on to its extremist constitutional position - pq were committed both to internal quebec reform and to a democratic approach to separation - bill 101 to turn quebec into unilingual francophone province - educated ins french schools - elimination of english signs in province - 1979 white paper what it meant to be sovereignty association - wanted a free proud and adult national existence within the context of a series of joint quebec canada institutions including a court of justice and monetary authority - but still wanted canals money - 40% in favour of sovereignty association - wanted quebec in confederation - ottawa wanted to entrench a charted of rights in any new constitutional document, chiefly to guarantee francophone linguistic rights across the nation, but the majority of the provinces objected to such a charter as threatening their own rights - the provinces wanted an amending formula that would allow all princes the right of veto and the right to opt out of any amendments that they regarded as threatening their powers - new proposal called for elimination of recourse to the british parliament for amendment of the BNA act - NDP agreed but conservatives opposed - ontario joined quebec in agreeing to drop its right of veto in favour of a complex formula that ensured that either one or the other (but not both) would have to agree to any amendment—-less of a loss for ottawa than for the central provinces - provinces that had refuses to concur with constitutional change had the right to remain outside its provisions until they chose to opt in a considerable move from trudeaus earlier positions - trudeaus —notwithstanding clause: allowed any province to opt out of clauses in the charter covering fundamental freedoms and legal and equally rights, although not other categories of rights including language rights - the charter established american constitutional notion that the court system would enforce fundamental rights over the legislature and the governmental rights over the legislature and the governmental responsible to it - - brian mulroney sighed redress agreement 1988 prime minister acknowledged the wartime treatment was unjust and violated principles of human rights - as they are understood today —regarding Japanese Canadians in ww2 new constitution gave new powers to provinces, it also recognized new and rather amorphous political collectives in the charter of rights and freedoms which was less concerned with american vll of rights which defined the rights of individuals and somewhat more concerned with delineating collective rights - providing equality before the law for individuals facing discrimination based on race, national or ethnic origin, colour, religion, sex, age or mental/physical disability: any law, program or activity that has as its object the amelioration of considerations of disadvantaged individuals or groups including those disadvantaged by discrimination - charter allowed provinces ability to control own resources - meech lake failed because manitoba and NFL objected - aboriginal as most rapidly growing sector of the canadian population - since confederation most first nations have paternally governed under indian act - aboriginal rights: result of having been first inhabitant in NA: rights to land that the first nations have occupied since before european intrusion and right to self government - treaty rights: result from specific written arrangements between european governments especially the british government and its Canadian successors - labrador, northern quebec, the far north and mainland BC historic cession treaties were never negotiated and consequently the native peoples of these areas had no ascribed treaty rights and were in effect squatters on their own land - price controls, could not prevent runaway inflation, higher interest rates, high levels of unemployment and substantial poverty - with the manufacturing economies of the industrialized world fully recovered and new competition form the industrializing world emerging daily, canadian manufacturing was in serious structural trouble - as well as farmers and fishers - labour unions were attempting to protect their members in the context of the new economic situation - wanted wage increases to keep peace with inflation and opposed management efforts to rationalize or modernize their workforces through layoffs or by getting rid of redundancies - strikes made demands of labour appear unreasonable - teachers, police, firefighters, nurses and postal kept striking which were key public serves threatened with interruption but wage settlements in the public se
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