Chapter 2- book
Sep. 18, 11
• We are concerned about the aggression in our lives, in our
• Research in Psychology use different methods to answer
questions about human behavior.
• Goals of Scientific Enterprise:
o Measurement and description measuring techniques so
that the behavior is better described
o Understanding and prediction need tu understand events
for why hey happen therefore they make hypothesis- not
certain statement about 2 things (variables- things that are
observed by the body)
o Application and controlapplying research to regular
• Theories help with finding the problem related ideas combined
together to help explain observations to help understand the
o Theories make having the description of behavior to the
understanding of it. But it has to be testable
• The theory always needs to be tested but not all at once because
there may be too many theories to test. Therefore, if the theory
doesn’t go as planned then it should be revised or cancelled.
• Steps in Scientific Investigation:
o Formulate a Testable Hypothesis need to make a theory
into a hypothesis.
Operational definition- describes actions or
operations to measure and control the variable,
needs to be made and created precisely.
o Select Research Methods and Design the Studymake
hypothesis into an empirical test. The researched needs to
make sure that they have the best strategy that is easy
o Collect the Data collect all data.
o Analyze the Data and Make Conclusions using statistics
to analyze the data. They make sure their hypotheses are
supported by their data.
o Report the findings need to share findings with other
people so need to write up a summary of the findings- a
journal is what is used.
• Clarity and and precision- advantages to using science to make
conclusions about behavior.- more exact than common sense.
• Relative intolerance of error very critical when it comes to tests
and it takes a lot to make something be right. • 2 types of research- Experimental and Descriptive/correlation.
• Experiments are made to see how one variable reacts in another
variable- this allows researches to see cause and effect of
o Want to find how x effects y.
• Independent variable- experimenter controls or manipulates to
see how it impacts other variables.
• Dependency variable- manipulates by the independent variable.
• Experimental and control group should be similar.
o When they are alike except for the variation which was
manipulates is because of the variation on the independent
o Need to be alike only for the dependent variable.
• Variables in which groups are alike for:
o Extraneous variables that seem likely to influence the
Confounding- two variables are together and its hard
to sort out the specific effets. So to when an
extraneous is confounded its hard to tell which is
having the effect on the dependent variable.
• Disadvantages in experimental research- artificial and
manipulations can be hard to make
• Naturalistic observation- observing wit