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Chapter 2

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PSYC 1010
Myriam Mongrain

Chapter 2- book Sep. 18, 11 • We are concerned about the aggression in our lives, in our society. • Research in Psychology use different methods to answer questions about human behavior. • Goals of Scientific Enterprise: o Measurement and description measuring techniques so that the behavior is better described o Understanding and prediction need tu understand events for why hey happen therefore they make hypothesis- not certain statement about 2 things (variables- things that are observed by the body) o Application and controlapplying research to regular everyday problems • Theories help with finding the problem related ideas combined together to help explain observations to help understand the behavior better. o Theories make having the description of behavior to the understanding of it. But it has to be testable • The theory always needs to be tested but not all at once because there may be too many theories to test. Therefore, if the theory doesn’t go as planned then it should be revised or cancelled. • Steps in Scientific Investigation: o Formulate a Testable Hypothesis need to make a theory into a hypothesis.  Operational definition- describes actions or operations to measure and control the variable, needs to be made and created precisely. o Select Research Methods and Design the Studymake hypothesis into an empirical test. The researched needs to make sure that they have the best strategy that is easy and practical. o Collect the Data collect all data. o Analyze the Data and Make Conclusions using statistics to analyze the data. They make sure their hypotheses are supported by their data. o Report the findings need to share findings with other people so need to write up a summary of the findings- a journal is what is used. • Clarity and and precision- advantages to using science to make conclusions about behavior.- more exact than common sense. • Relative intolerance of error very critical when it comes to tests and it takes a lot to make something be right. • 2 types of research- Experimental and Descriptive/correlation. • Experiments are made to see how one variable reacts in another variable- this allows researches to see cause and effect of relationships. o Want to find how x effects y. • Independent variable- experimenter controls or manipulates to see how it impacts other variables. • Dependency variable- manipulates by the independent variable. • Experimental and control group should be similar. o When they are alike except for the variation which was manipulates is because of the variation on the independent variable. o Need to be alike only for the dependent variable. • Variables in which groups are alike for: o Extraneous variables that seem likely to influence the dependent variable.  Confounding- two variables are together and its hard to sort out the specific effets. So to when an extraneous is confounded its hard to tell which is having the effect on the dependent variable. • Disadvantages in experimental research- artificial and manipulations can be hard to make • Naturalistic observation- observing wit
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