Textbook Notes (368,794)
Canada (162,165)
PSYC 1010 (6)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6- Learning.docx

3 Pages
Unlock Document

PSYC 1010
Gerald Goldberg

Chapter 6 Learning- any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience Phobias- irrational fears of specific objects or situations - Can be treated, but sometimes come to an abrupt, unplanned end on their own Conditioning- learning connections between events that occur in an organism’s environment CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (type of learning)- by Pavlov (Pavlovian conditioning) - A stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus - Stimuli in external world controlled our action and behavior - Can lead to immunosuppression (decrease is production of antibodies), allergic reactions, drug tolerance, sexual arousal Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)- stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning Unconditioned response (UCR)- unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning Conditioned stimulus (CS) - Previously neutral stimulus that has (thru conditioning) acquired capacity to evoke conditioned response Conditioned response (CR) - Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs b/c of previous conditioning Elicited (drawn forth)- relex (most are relatively automatic or involuntary) Trial- any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli Evaluative conditioning - Changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus w/other positive or negative stimuli - Can shape attitudes Acquisition- initial stage of learning something Extinction- gradual weakening + disappearance of conditioned response tendency (suppresses CR) Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of an extinguished response after period of non-exposure to conditioned stimulus Renewal effect - Response is extinguished in a different environment that it was acquired - Extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place Stimulus generalization - Occurs when organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus - The more similar new stimuli are to original CS, greater the generalization - Generalization gradient (graph) Stimulus discrimination - Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the say way to new stimuli that are similar to original stimulus - Original CS are usually required to continue to be paired w/UCS while similar stimuli are not paired with same UCS Higher order conditioning- conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus - Built on foundation of already established conditioned response OPERANT CONDITIONING- form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences (by Skinner) - Instrumental learning (Thorndlike), baby box Law of effect - If a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association btw stimulus + response is strengthened Reinforcement- event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response (rewarding consequences) Operant chamber (skinner box) - Small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that’s recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled - Operant responses tend to be voluntary (emitted- send forth) Reinforcement contingencies - Circumstances or rules that determine whether a responses lead to presentation of reinforcers Cumulative recorder - Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in Skinner box as a function of time Shaping- reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response - Necessary when organism does not, on its own, emit the desired responses - Operant responses are usually established gradually this way Resistance to extinction - Organism continues to make a response after delivery of reinforce has been terminated Discriminative stimuli - Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probably consequences (reinforcement or non) of a response - Governed by pr
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 1010

Log In


Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.