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PSYC 1010 (6)
Chapter 6

Chapter 6- Learning.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 1010
Professor
Gerald Goldberg
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 6 Learning- any relatively durable change in behavior or knowledge that is due to experience Phobias- irrational fears of specific objects or situations - Can be treated, but sometimes come to an abrupt, unplanned end on their own Conditioning- learning connections between events that occur in an organism’s environment CLASSICAL CONDITIONING (type of learning)- by Pavlov (Pavlovian conditioning) - A stimulus acquires the capacity to evoke a response that was originally evoked by another stimulus - Stimuli in external world controlled our action and behavior - Can lead to immunosuppression (decrease is production of antibodies), allergic reactions, drug tolerance, sexual arousal Unconditioned stimulus (UCS)- stimulus that evokes an unconditioned response without previous conditioning Unconditioned response (UCR)- unlearned reaction to an unconditioned stimulus that occurs without previous conditioning Conditioned stimulus (CS) - Previously neutral stimulus that has (thru conditioning) acquired capacity to evoke conditioned response Conditioned response (CR) - Learned reaction to a conditioned stimulus that occurs b/c of previous conditioning Elicited (drawn forth)- relex (most are relatively automatic or involuntary) Trial- any presentation of a stimulus or pair of stimuli Evaluative conditioning - Changes in the liking of a stimulus that result from pairing that stimulus w/other positive or negative stimuli - Can shape attitudes Acquisition- initial stage of learning something Extinction- gradual weakening + disappearance of conditioned response tendency (suppresses CR) Spontaneous recovery- reappearance of an extinguished response after period of non-exposure to conditioned stimulus Renewal effect - Response is extinguished in a different environment that it was acquired - Extinguished response will reappear if the animal is returned to the original environment where acquisition took place Stimulus generalization - Occurs when organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus - The more similar new stimuli are to original CS, greater the generalization - Generalization gradient (graph) Stimulus discrimination - Occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus does not respond in the say way to new stimuli that are similar to original stimulus - Original CS are usually required to continue to be paired w/UCS while similar stimuli are not paired with same UCS Higher order conditioning- conditioned stimulus functions as if it were an unconditioned stimulus - Built on foundation of already established conditioned response OPERANT CONDITIONING- form of learning in which responses come to be controlled by their consequences (by Skinner) - Instrumental learning (Thorndlike), baby box Law of effect - If a response in the presence of a stimulus leads to satisfying effects, the association btw stimulus + response is strengthened Reinforcement- event following a response increases an organism’s tendency to make that response (rewarding consequences) Operant chamber (skinner box) - Small enclosure in which an animal can make a specific response that’s recorded while the consequences of the response are systematically controlled - Operant responses tend to be voluntary (emitted- send forth) Reinforcement contingencies - Circumstances or rules that determine whether a responses lead to presentation of reinforcers Cumulative recorder - Creates a graphic record of responding and reinforcement in Skinner box as a function of time Shaping- reinforcement of closer and closer approximations of a desired response - Necessary when organism does not, on its own, emit the desired responses - Operant responses are usually established gradually this way Resistance to extinction - Organism continues to make a response after delivery of reinforce has been terminated Discriminative stimuli - Cues that influence operant behavior by indicating the probably consequences (reinforcement or non) of a response - Governed by pr
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