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Chapter 10

Motivation and Emotion Chapter 10 Notes.docx

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PSYC 1010
Gerry Goldberg

Chapter 10 Motivational Theories and Concepts Overview Motives are the needs, wants interest and desires that propel ppl in certain directions • involves goal directed behaviour o street kids have little motivation to reach definable goals o their lives become focused on the short term goals, and lives become aimless Drive Theories • Drive theories apply concepts of homeostasis: a state of physiological equilibrium or stability to behaviour. • Drive internal state of tensions that motivates an organism to engage in activities that should reduce this tension • these tensions are viewed as disruptions of the preferred equilibrium • when individuals experience drive they’re motivated to pursue actions that will lead to drive reduction o ex. Hunger is a drive system- if you go without food for a while, you begin to experience some discomfort. This internal tension motivates you to obtain food. Eating reduces the drive and restores equilibrium • Drive theories cannot explain all motivation - “thirst for knowledge” Incentive Theories • propose that external stimuli regulate motivational states • Incentive is an external goal that has capacity to motivate behaviour o ex. A on an exam, promotion at work Drive and incentive theories are often contrasted as push vs pull theories • Drive theories emphasize how internal states of tension push people in certain directions, while incentive theories emphasize hoe external stimuli PULL people in certain directions • Incentive theory: motivation lies outside of organism • Drive theory: motivation lies within the organism Expectancy - Value models • ones motivation ti pursue certain course of action dependent on two factors 1. Expectancy about ones chance of attaining incentive 2. the value of the desired incentive • ex. gaining promotion at work is dependent on how likely you are to be promoted, and how much you value the promotion Evolutionary Theories • human motives and those of other species are the production of evolution, the same way anatomical characteristics are • natural selection favours behaviours that maximize reproductive success - passing genes to next gen. o Explains motives such as dominance, aggression and sex drive o ex. dominance provides reproductive/survival advantage • Based on premise that motives can be best understood in terms of adaptive problems they solved for hunter-gather ancestors • ex. females need for mating with dominant males • Affiliation motive need for belongingness, help with rearing offspring, collaboration with other hunters Range and Diversity of Human Motives • All theorists agree on one point: humans display diversity in motives o biological motives, and social motives o Biological needs are limited o unlimited social motives which are acquired through learning and socialization Motivation of Hunger and Eating Biological Factors in Regulation of Hunger o Cannon theorized that stomach contractions caused hunger o hunger can occur without out stomach, so Cannons theory was discredited Brain Regulation o hunger controlled by hypothalamus - regulates biological needs essential to survival o Arcuate Nucleus area in hypothalamus containing a group of neurons which are sensitive to incoming hunger signals/satiety signals o Neural Circuits pass though the areas of the hypothalamus Glucose and Digestive Regulation o Glucose circulates in the blood o Actions that decrease blood glucose level increase hunger o Glucostatic Theory fluctuations in blood glucose are monitored in the brain where they influence the experience of hunger o Arcuate nucleus is sensitive to glucostatic fluctuations that contribute to modulation of eating o After consuming food stomach stretches indicating stomach is full Hormonal Regulation o Insulin secreted by pancreas o needed for cell to extract glucose from blood o inadequate supply causes diabetes o mere sight and smell of food can cause the secretion of insulin o Ghrelin secreted when stomach hasn’t had food for a while, causing stomach contractions causing hunger o CCK secreted by upper intestine after food consumption, reducing hunger o Leptin o Produced by fat cells thoughout the body and released in bloodstream o Higher fat levels = higher leptin secretion o Provides hypothalamus info about body’s fat stores • All hormones influencing hunger converge in the arcuate and paraventricular nuceli of hypothalamus Environmental Factors in the Regulation of Hunger Food Availability and Related Cues • Humans often motivated to eat not by the need to compensate for energy deficits but by the anticipated pleasure of eating • Palatability the better the food taste more people consume • Quantity Available the more people are served the more they will eat • Variety increases consumption when greater variety of foods is available. o Sensory-specific Satiety As you eat specific food, its incentive value declines  With few foods one can quickly tire, and decease intake, while with variety more consumption is likely (buffets) • Presence of Others The more people present, the more people tend to eat Learned Preferences and Habits • Eating habits are shaped through learning – culture Stress and Eating • Stress leads to increased eating because you expect the enjoyable treat to make you feel better Eating and Weight: The Roots of Obesity • Obese parents increases the likelihood of obese children • More vulnerable to cardiovascular disease, diabetes, hypertension, respiratory problems, gallbladder disease, stroke, arthritis, cancer, skeletal/muscle pain • Evolutionary Orientated Explanation o Most animals lived in environments which there was fierce competition for limited amount of food, and starvation was a threat o Warm blooded foraging animals grew to consume more food immediately when available, because food may not be available later o Excess calories in body stored as fat to prepare for future food shortages o Due to industrialization, humans now have reliable supply of food and hence tend to overeat Genetic Predisposition • Adults raised by adoptive parents compared to their biological parents BMI • Adoptees most resemble their biological parents, than adopted ones • Twin Study identical twins reared apart more similar in BMI than fraternal twins reared together • Some people inherit a genetic vulnerability to obesity Excessive Eating and Inadequate Exercise • Caloric intake far exceeds caloric output • Lower income families vulnerable to inactivity Sensitivity to External Cues • Externality Hypothesis obese people are extra sensitive to external cues that affect hunger and are relatively insensitive to internal physiological signals • Readily respond to availability and attractiveness of food • Stroebe external cues have greater impact on food intake of obese people than normal ppl Set point your body may have a natural point of stability in body weight Proposes that the body monitors fat-cell level to keep fairly stable weight Settling point Theory weight tends to drift around the level at which the constellation of factors that determine food consumption and energy usage achieves equilibrium Long term change in eating and exercise, causes persons settling point to drift downward without resistance Sexual Motivation and Behaviour The Human Sexual Response • William Masters & Virginia Johnson o Researched the act o Studied Physiological reactions with help of interviews to provide detailed description of human response o 4 Phases o Excitement Phase o Physical arousal rises rapidly o Muscle tension, respirations rate,
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