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Chapter 5

PSYC 1010- Chapter 5 Review Questions

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PSYC 1010
Doug Mc Cann

1 Learning Objectives Chapter 5: Variations in Consciousness 1. Discuss the nature of consciousness and the distinction between controlled and automatic processes. • Consciousness o Is the awareness of internal and external stimuli • Stream of consciousness o Continuous flow of consciousness • Mind wandering o Refers to people’s experience of task-unrelated thoughts • Controlled processes (consciousness) o Judgements or thoughts that we exert some control over, that we intend to occur o Constrained by capacity limitations such that you often consider only a small subset of all relevant information when making a decision or evaluation • Automatic processes (unconsciousness) o Its effects happen without our intentional control or effort o Does not have the same capacity constraints as controlled processing 2. Discuss the relationship between consciousness and EEG activity. • Electroencephalograph (EEG) o Is a device that monitors the electrical activity of the brain over time by means of recording electrodes attached to the surface of the scalp o Summarizes the rhythm of cortical activity in the brain in terms of line tracings called brain waves o Beta waves (13-24 cps)- normal waking thought, alert problem solving o Alpha waves (8-12 cps)- deep relaxation, blank mind, meditation o Theta (4-7)- light sleep o Delta (Less than 4)- deep sleep 3. Summarize the Featured Study on the merits of unconscious thought, and explain how decision-making is affected by processes outside our awareness. 2 • Designed to test the hypothesis that unconscious thought might be superior to conscious thought processes under certain conditions • Participants who were not given the opportunity to consciously reflect on the qualities of potential roommates made more accurate evaluations than did those who were asked to make immediate ratings or those that had time to reflect and engage in conscious thought • This type of situation is ideal for showing the value of unconscious thought—it was a complex decision based on many pieces of information. Tended to make more polarized, integrated, and clearer representations in memory and more global judgements, basing their judgements on more information, compared to those in the conscious condition, who tended to focus on only a few attributes 4. Summarize what is known about our biological rhythms and their relationship to sleep. • Biological rhythms o Are periodic fluctuations in physiological functioning o Organisms have internal “biological clocks” that somehow monitor the passage of time • Circadian rhythms o 24-hour biological cycles found in humans and many other species o Particularly influential in the regulation of sleep o Daily cycles also produce rhythmic variations in blood pressure, urine production, hormonal secretions, and other physical function as well as alertness, short-term memory, and other aspects of cognitive performance o Regulated by multiple internal clocks, with a central pacemaker located in the Suprachiasmatic Nucleus (SCN) • People generally fall sleep as body temperature drops and awaken when it rises once again • Lack of sleep increases worker’s accident proneness and decreases their mental and physical health 5. Summarize the evidence on the value of melatonin as a sleep aid. • Melatonin o Hormone that regulates the human biological clock o May have value in efforts to alleviate the effects of jet lag but must be used at the right time to be effective 6. Describe how sleep research is conducted. • In a lab with bedrooms, subjects retire, usually after being hooked up to a variety of physiological recording devices. 3 • Electroencephalograph (EEG), electromyograph (EMG)- records muscular activity and tension and Electrooculograph (EOG)- records eye movement • Researchers observe the sleeping subject through a window and monitor their elaborate physiological recording equipment 7. Describe how the sleep cycle evolves through the night. • Stage 1 o Brief transitional stage of light sleep that usually last only a few (1-7) minutes o Breathing and heart rate slow as muscle tension and body temperature decline o Theta waves • Stage 2 o Brief bursts of higher-frequency brain waves (sleep spindles) o 10-25 minutes • Stage 3 & 4 o Slow-wave sleep (SWS) o High-amplitude, low-frequency delta waves o 30-60 minutes • After stage 4, it reverses cycle then once it reaches stage, goes to REM • Stage 5- Rapid Eye Movement (REM) o Low-voltage, high frequency waves o Irregular breathing and pulse rate o Deep stage of sleep but brain resembles those of alert and awake brains o Dream stage where it is more frequent, vivid and memorable 8. Compare and contrast REM and NREM sleep. • REM sleep is a relatively deep stage of sleep marked by rapid eye movements; high-frequency, low-amplitude brain waves; and vivid dreaming • Non-REM (NREM) sleep consist of stages 1 through 4 marked by the absence of rapid eye movements, relatively little dreaming and varied EEG activity 9. Summarize age trends in patterns of sleep • Newborns 4 o REM and NREM o Will sleep 6-8 times in a 24-hour period, often exceeding a total of 16 hours of sleep o Spends most of sleep time in REM sleep than adults do • REM sleep gradually decreases from 50% to 20% • Adulthood o REM sleep proportion remains stable o Slow-wave sleep declines dramatically o Time spent in stage 1 increases slightly o Stronger in men than women • Age 60-80 o Shows significantly less sleepiness during the day than younger adults (18-30) o May need less sleep than younger adults o Tolerate sleep deprivation with less impairment than younger adults o Have more difficulty adjusting to circadian phase shifts (jet lag, etc.) 10.Summarize how culture influences sleep patterns. • Differences only in sleeping arrangement and napping customs • Western Societies o Co-sleeping is discouraged • Asian Cultures o Japanese encourage co-sleeping to promote interdependence and group harmony • Tropical Regions o Shops close and activities planned in the afternoon to permit people to enjoy a 1-2 hour midday nap 11.Discuss the neural bases of sleep. • Ascending reticular activation system (ARAS) o Consists of the afferent fibres running through the reticular formation that influence physiological arousal 5 • Rhythm of sleep and waking is regulated by subcortical structures that lie deep within the brain (reticular formation in the core of the brainstem) • Pons and adjacent areas in the midbrain is critical to the generation of REM sleep • Hypothalamus, medulla, thalamus and basal forebrain control sleep and a variety of neurotransmitters are involved 12.Discuss the effects of sleep deprivation, including sleep restriction and selective deprivation of specific stages of sleep. • Partial sleep deprivation/ sleep restriction o When people make do with substantially less sleep than normal over time o Negative effects show when people are working on long-lasting, difficult or monotonous tasks o Sleep deprived people are not good at predicting if and when they will fall asleep o Poor judgement and attention, irritable o Amygdala is more active when sleep deprived and less connectivity to other structures in the brain associated with prefrontal control o More emotional reactivity and less control in response to negative stimuli in the parts of the brain implicated in emotional processing • Selective Deprivation o REM stage deprivation 1. Little impact on daytime functioning and task performance 2. The longer REM is deprived, the faster it is to shift into REM sleep 3. When finally allowed to sleep longer, extra time is spent in REM sleep to make up for their REM deprivation o Slow-wave sleep 1. Same effects as REM sleep • Sound sleep habits facilitate learning • REM sleep appears to foster the process of neurogenesis (formation of new neurons) • Sleep Loss o Triggers hormonal changes that increase hunger which increases the risk of obesity 6 o Leads to impairment of the immune system functioning and increased inflammatory responses which heighten vulnerability to diseases o Increased risk for diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease 13.Discuss the prevalence, causes and treatment of insomnia. • Insomnia o Refers to the chronic problems in getting adequate sleep o Occurs in 3 basic patterns 1. Difficulty in falling asleep initially 2. Difficulty in remaining asleep 3. Persistent early-morning awakening o Associated with daytime fatigue, impaired functioning, elevated risk for accidents, reduced productivity, absenteeism at work, depression, anxiety, substance abuse, hypertension, and increased health problems • Prevalence o About 34-35% of adults report problems with insomnia and about half suffer from severe or frequent insomnia o Increases with age o 50% more common in women than men o Pseudo-insomnia 1. Sleep state misperception 2. They just think they are getting an inadequate amount of sleep • Causes o Excessive anxiety and tension prevent relaxation and keep people awake o Frequently a side effect of emotional problems such as depression o Significant stress such as pressures at work o Health problems like ulcers, back pain, and asthma o Use of stimulants such as cocaine and amphetamines o Hyperarousal model 7 1. Exhibit hormonal patterns that fuel arousal, elevated heart rate, high metabolic activation, increased body temperature, and EEG patterns • Treatment o Over-the-counter sleep aids, which is unreliable and questionable value o Prescription drugs 1. Benzodiazepine sedatives (Dalmane, Halcion, and Restoril) 1. Originally developed to relieve anxiety 2. Nonbenzodiazepine sedatives (Ambien, Sonata, Lunesta) 1. Originally developed for sleep problems o Relaxation and behavioural interventions 1. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy (CBT): emphasizes recognizing and changing negative thoughts and maladaptive beliefs 14.Describe the symptoms of narcolepsy, sleep apnea, night terrors, nightmares, and somnambulism. • Narcolepsy o Disease marked by sudden and irresistible onsets of sleep during normal waking hours o Goes directly from wakefulness in to REM sleep in 10-20 minutes o Genetically predisposed to the disease o Stimulant drugs used to treat this condition with modest success • Sleep Apnea o Involves frequent, reflexive gasping for air that awakens a person and disrupts sleep o May be awakened from sleep hundreds of times per night o Occurs when a person stops breathing for a minimum of 10 seconds o Heart failure is prevalent o Usually accompanied by loud snoring o 2% of women and 4% of men between ages 30 and 60 o Increases vulnerability to hypertension, coronary disease, and stroke 8 o Treated via lifestyle modifications (weight loss, reduced alcohol intake, improved sleep hygiene), drug therapy, special masks and oral devices that improve airflow, and upper airway and craniofacial surgery • Nightmares o Anxiety-arousing dreams that lead to awakening, usually from REM sleep o Recalls a vivid dream and may have difficulty getting back to sleep o Significant stress increases frequency and intensity of nightmares o Increased scores on neuroticism, trait anxiety, state anxiety, and depression o Problem in children • Night terrors (sleep terrors) o Are abrupt awakenings from NREM sleep, accompanied by intense autonomic arousal and feelings of panic o Occur stage 4 early in the night o Victims let out a piercing cry, bolt upright, and then stare into space o Do not recall a coherent dream though may remember a simple, frightening image o Common in children age 3-8 o Panic fades quickly and a return to sleep is easy • Somnambulism (sleepwalking) o Occurs when a person rises and wanders about while remaining asleep o Occurs during the first 2 hours of sleep and may last from 15 seconds to 30 minutes o May awaken during their journey, or may return to bed without any recollection of their excursion o Appears to have a genetic predisposition o Does not appear to be a manifestation of underlying emotional or psychological problems o Prone to accidents o It is safe to wake them up • REM sleep behaviour disorder (RBD) o Marked by potentially troublesome dream enactments during REM periods 9 o May talk, yell, gesture, flail about, or leap out of bed during REM dreams o Reports that they were being chased or attacked in their dreams o Appears to be a deterioration in the brainstem structures that are normally responsible for this immobilization during REM periods o Treatment is difficult and can coexist with other sleep disorders o Mostly occur in men 50s or 60s 15.Summarize findings on dream content, including the relationship between dreams and events in waking life • Dream Content o Most dreams are relatively mundane o Unfold in familiar settings with a cast of characters dominated by family, friends and colleagues o More tolerant of logical discrepancies and implausible scenarios in our dreams than our waking though o Move through coherent sensible, realistic virtual worlds o First-person perspective o Males are typically positive dreams while females are more negative, including dreams related to phobias (snakes, spiders), performance anxiety (failure), and control (loss of control) • Dreams and events in waking life o Dream content is continuous with waking conceptions and emotion preoccupations o Freud’s “day residue”- contents of waking life often tended to spill into dreams o “Lucid dreams”- sometimes people may realize they are dreaming while still in the dream state. Dreamers may be able to exert some control over the dream 16.Describe some cultural variations in beliefs about the nature and importance of dreams • Western Cultures o Dreams are largely written off as insignificant, meaningless meanderings of the unconscious • Non-western Cultures 10 o Dreams are viewed as important sources of information about oneself, the future or about the spiritual world 17.Describe the three theories of dreaming covered in the chapter. • Sigmund Freud (1900) o Wish fullfilment 1. People fulfill ungratified needs from waking hours through wishful thinking in dreams 2. Wish-fulfilling quality of many dreams may not be readily apparent because the true meaning of dreams may be disguised • Rosalind Cartwright o Cognitive, problem-solving view 1. Dreams provide an opportunity to work through everyday problems 2. There is considerable continuity between waking and sleeping thought 3. Dreams allow people to engage in creative thinking about problems because dreams are not restrained by logic or realism 4. Research that sleep enhances learning adds credibility to the problem- solving view of dreams • J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarley o Activation-synthesis model 1. Proposes that dreams are side effects of the neural activation the produces “wide-awake” brain waves during REM sleep 2. Neurons firing periodically in lower brain centres send random signals to the cortex (complex thought) which synthesizes a dream to make sense out of these signals 3. Does not assume that dreams are meaningless 4. Cannot accommodate the fact that dreaming occurs outside of REM sleep and that the contents of dreams are considerably more meaningful than the model would predict 18.Discuss hypnotic susceptibility, and list some prominent effects of hypnosis. • Hypnosis 11 o Is a systematic procedure that typically produces a heightened state of suggestibility o May lead to passive relaxation, narrowed attention, and enhance fantasy • Hypnotic induction o Swinging pendulum o Hypnotist will suggest that the subject is relaxing, getting tired, drowsy, or sleepy, repetitively and softly • Hypnotic susceptibility o Responsiveness to hypnosis is a stable, measurable trait 1. Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (SHSS) 2. Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility o 10-20% of the population does not respond well to hypnosis o 10-15% of the population are exceptionally good hypnotic subjects o Spiegel, Greenleaf and Spiegel 1. High hypnotisability is made up of 3 components: 1. Absorption- involves the capacity to reduce or block peripheral awareness and narrow the focus of one’s attention 2. Dissociation- involves the ability to separate aspects of perception, memory, or identity, from the mainstream of conscious awareness 3. Suggestibility- involves the tendency to accept directions and information relatively uncritically • Effects of Hypnosis o Anesthesia 1. Hypnosis can be used as a substitute for anesthetic drugs though they are far more reliable pain killers, hypnosis is an effective anesthetic in the treatment of both acute and chronic pain o Sensory distortions and hallucinations 1. May be led to experience auditory or visual hallucinations 2. May also have sensations distorted so that something sweet may taste sour or an unpleasant odour smells fragrant o Disinhibition 12 1. Sometimes reduce inhibitions that
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