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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 - The Evolution of Psychology

9 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis

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Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology - Reena Virk was beaten to death by 7 girls (14-16 yrs old) and one boy (aged 16) o Kelly Ellard and Warren Glowatski convicted of second degree murder Glowatski showed remorse and was granted parole 8 yrs later Ellard never expressed remorse - Dawn-Marie Wesley committed suicide after being bullied in a similar way - Shows females have as much an aggressive streak in them as males do (though manifested less often) o There is an increased number of women charged with violent crimes (2008) - Many more young people find themselves the victims of unreported bullying - Psychologists take these events and use them for research to try to understand and reduce the frequency of them occurring o Increased since the inclusion of electronic bullying o Canadian psychologists at the forefront of this research Hope to offer explanations and come up with solutions to this problem From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed - psychology comes from 2 Greek words o psyche: soul o logos: the study of a subject Current literal definition: study of the mind - Emerged as a science discipline only a little over 100 years ago A New Science is Born: The Contribution of Wundt and Hall - Psychology came from philosophy and physiology o Wilhelm Wundt (German) made it its own science discipline German universities were expanding so he had the resources to do so Proposals were well received Established the first formal psych research lab (U of Leipzig) Established first journal that published research on psych So successful, known as founder of psych Subject matter of psych: the awareness of immediate experience (consciousness) Kept focus on the mind while being as scientific as possible Had many students (and their students) that branched out Grew considerably in North America Research labs kept popping up in the U.S. and Canada - G. Stanley Hall o Studied with Wundt o Big contributor to the expansion of psych in America Established Americas first psych research lab Launched Americas first psych journal First president and founder of the American Psychological Assoc. (APA) Is the largest organization for the development of psych o U of T scientist Baldwin and Hume were also part of the establishing process - Psych started in Germany but exploded into the U.S. where it was taken to much more quickly than in was is Europe The Battle of Schools Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism - Psychs first intellectual battle was between two major schools of thought o Structuralism and functionalism - Structuralism: o Thought lead by Edward Titchener Studied under Wundt but brought his own thoughts to psych to the States o Said psychology should analyze consciousness into its basic elements And then investigate how these are related Elements: sensations, feelings, images Main focus: sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch o Depended on introspection The meticulous observation of ones own consciousness Subjects were trained to become more aware of their own experiences and were then analyzed under controlled conditions Problem: an individuals reflection provides no means of being objectively evaluated Lead to structuralisms eventual demise - Functionalism: o The investigation of the purpose of consciousness instead of its structure Associated with William James Wrote Principles of Psychology (most influential psych text) Was inspired by Darwins Principle of Natural Selection Wanted to understand the flow of thoughts (stream of consciousness o Structuralism only focused on static parts Studied how people adapt to the world around them o Investigated mental testing, patterns of development in children, effectiveness of educational practices, behavioural differences between sexes Intellectual leaders: Cattell and Dewey Attracted women to psychology (had a large impact) Ex: Margaret Washburn, first American women to earn a Ph.D. in psych, wrote the Animal Mind; Leta Hollingworth; Matry Whiton Calkins, first female president of the APA - Historians conclude that functionalism won the battle Fostered the development of behaviourism and applied psych (used today) o Eventually faded away with structuralism Watson Alters Psychologys Course as Behaviorism Makes its Debut - Behaviourism:o Founded by John B. Watson o Said psych should only study observable behaviour Redefined what psych should be about o Wanted to follow the scientific method Only studies things that can be observed Cant study someones mind o Want psych to become the study of behavior (any observable response or activity by an organism) Watson figured you can scientifically study what people do but not what they think o Argued the old nature vs. nurture Strongly believed that individuals are made, not born (nurture) Used this belief in association with behaviorism o Eventually came to study an individuals behavior in relation to any observable input from the environment (stimuli) Behavioral approach now known as stimulus-response (S-R) psychology o First met by resistance, gradually become more accepted o Gradual emergence of behaviorism (some 10 years before Watson) was started by Ivan Pavlov Experiment: dogs trained to salivated at a given auditory stimulus Provided i
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