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Chapter 1

PSYC 1010 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Murder Of Reena Virk, Wilhelm Wundt, Leta Stetter Hollingworth


Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSYC 1010
Professor
Rebecca Jubis
Chapter
1

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Chapter 1: The Evolution of Psychology
- Reena Virk was beaten to death by 7 girls (14-16 yrs old) and one boy (aged 16)
oKelly Ellard and Warren Glowatski convicted of second degree murder
Glowatski showed remorse and was granted parole 8 yrs later
Ellard never expressed remorse
- Dawn-Marie Wesley committed suicide after being bullied in a similar way
- Shows females have as much an aggressive streak in them as males do (though
manifested less often)
oThere is an increased number of women charged with violent crimes (2008)
-Many more young people find themselves the victims of unreported bullying
- Psychologists take these events and use them for research to try to understand and reduce
the frequency of them occurring
oIncreased since the inclusion of electronic bullying
oCanadian psychologists at the forefront of this research
Hope to offer explanations and come up with solutions to this problem
From Speculation to Science: How Psychology Developed
- “psychology” comes from 2 Greek words
o“psyche”: soul
o“logos”: the study of a subject
Current literal definition: study of the mind
- Emerged as a science discipline only a little over 100 years ago
A New Science is Born: The Contribution of Wundt and Hall
- Psychology came from philosophy and physiology
oWilhelm Wundt (German) made it its own science discipline
German universities were expanding so he had the resources to do so
Proposals were well received
Established the first formal psych research lab (U of Leipzig)
Established first journal that published research on psych
So successful, known as “founder of psych”
Subject matter of psych: the awareness of immediate experience
(consciousness)
Kept focus on the mind while being as scientific as possible
Had many students (and their students) that branched out
Grew considerably in North America
Research labs kept popping up in the U.S. and Canada
- G. Stanley Hall
oStudied with Wundt
oBig contributor to the expansion of psych in America
Established America’s first psych research lab
Launched America’s first psych journal
First president and founder of the American Psychological Assoc. (APA)

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Is the largest organization for the development of psych
oU of T scientist Baldwin and Hume were also part of the
establishing process
- Psych started in Germany but exploded into the U.S. where it was taken to much more
quickly than in was is Europe
The Battle of “Schools” Begins: Structuralism vs. Functionalism
- Psych’s first intellectual battle was between two major schools of thought
oStructuralism and functionalism
- Structuralism:
oThought lead by Edward Titchener
Studied under Wundt but brought his own thoughts to psych to the States
oSaid psychology should “analyze consciousness into its basic elements And then
investigate how these are related”
Elements: sensations, feelings, images
Main focus: sensation and perception in vision, hearing and touch
oDepended on introspection
The meticulous observation of one’s own consciousness
Subjects were trained to become more aware of their own
experiences and were then analyzed under controlled conditions
Problem: an individual’s reflection provides no means of being objectively
evaluated
Lead to structuralisms eventual demise
- Functionalism:
oThe investigation of the purpose of consciousness instead of its structure
Associated with William James
Wrote “Principles of Psychology” (most influential psych text)
Was inspired by Darwin’s “Principle of Natural Selection”
Wanted to understand the flow of thoughts (“stream of
consciousness”
oStructuralism only focused on static parts
Studied how people adapt to the world around them
oInvestigated mental testing, patterns of development in children, effectiveness of
educational practices, behavioural differences between sexes
Intellectual leaders: Cattell and Dewey
Attracted women to psychology (had a large impact)
Ex: Margaret Washburn, first American women to earn a Ph.D. in
psych, wrote “the Animal Mind”; Leta Hollingworth; Matry
Whiton Calkins, first female president of the APA
- Historians conclude that functionalism won the “battle”
Fostered the development of behaviourism and applied psych (used today)
oEventually faded away with structuralism
Watson Alters Psychology’s Course as Behaviorism Makes its Debut
-Behaviourism:

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oFounded by John B. Watson
oSaid psych should only study observable behaviour
Redefined what psych should be about
oWanted to follow the scientific method
Only studies things that can be observed
Can’t study someone’s mind
oWant psych to become the study of behavior (any observable response or activity
by an organism)
Watson figured you can scientifically study what people do but not what
they think
oArgued the old “nature vs. nurture”
Strongly believed that individuals are made, not born (nurture)
Used this belief in association with behaviorism
oEventually came to study an individual’s behavior in relation to any observable
input from the environment (stimuli)
Behavioral approach now known as “stimulus-response (S-R)
psychology”
oFirst met by resistance, gradually become more accepted
oGradual emergence of behaviorism (some 10 years before Watson) was started by
Ivan Pavlov
Experiment: dogs trained to salivated at a given auditory stimulus
Provided insight to how S-R bonds are made
Paved the way for Watson
oBegan to use animals for research instead of humans
Subjects can be controlled
-Behaviourism was met by opposition
oGermany: “Gestalt” psychology
Wanted to continue studying conscious experiences instead of behavior
oAustria: lead by Sigmund Freud
Freud Brings the Unconscious into the Picture
- Sigmund Freud: (prove eels had testes)
oApproach to psych came from treating people with mental disorders
oCame up with the existence of the “unconscious”
Thoughts, memories, desires that are below the conscious mind but still
influence and individual’s behavior
oNoticed:
People word slip ups usually revealed their true feelings
Dreams expressed important feelings that were being experienced
Concluded: psychological disturbances are caused by problems at
the unconscious level
o“Psychoanalytic theory”: explains mental, personality and motivation disorders by
unconscious effectors of behavior
oSuggested that people are not the masters of their own mind
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