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Chapter 2

# Chapter 2 & Appendix B Statistics.pdf

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School
Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2510
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 & Appendix B: Statistics Monday, September 26, 20112:00 PM Statistics: What It's About - The use of numbers - Statistical methods allow for the collection, classification - Statistics are just another way to quantify (assign numbers to) properties of objects or events of interest - The use of numbers increase precision of communication/description - Statistical methods are used to go beyond the numbers ○ Extracting info and permitting accurate interpretations Populations &Samples - Population-- all members of a group who are alike on at least one specific characteristic - Sample-- any number of cases less than the total number of cases in the population from which it is drawn - Samples are usually the object of studies - Info about samples is used to make inferences about the characteristics of the larger population as a whole - Samples must be representative of the population in order to draw meaningful and accurate inferences - Samples from different populations can be compared in a study (e.g., autistic children vs. normally developing children) - Samples must be comparative - Sample selection methods matter Types of Samples - Random sample-- each member of the pool has an equal probability of being selected on any given draw and each possible sample of members has an equal probability of being selected - Randomized sample-- each member of the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to a given condition of the experiment - Matched sample-- yields pairs of observations to produce highly comparable groups ○ Two participants are paired based on similarities in relevant characteristics and each takes part in one of the conditions, OR ○ The same participant takes part in both conditions ○ Most suitable for experiments in which there are only 2 conditions or groups Parametersand Statistics - Population parameters-- the properties of populations (e.g., λ) ○ E.g. the average number of books read by college graduates last year in North America Types of Data - Numerical Data ○ Tell us how much of a given property each sample member exhibits ○ Magnitude and rank-order data - Magnitude Data: Number indicating the amount of a property that exists along a continuum ("how much") - Rank-Order (Ordinal) Data: Amounts of a property expressed as a rank relative to other individuals (1st, 2nd, 3rd) - Categorical or Nominal Data ○ Information reflects mutually exclusive categories in which participants fall ○ Participants either display the attribute of they don't  E.g., male vs. female, fall vs. short, low mood vs. normative mood vs. elevated mood Unit 1 Page 1  E.g., male vs. female, fall vs. short, low mood vs. normative mood vs. elevated mood - Numerical (magnitude, ordinal) and categorical data are informative in their own way ○ Each form lends itself to certain statistical analyses ○ Choose carefully which type of data will help you answer your question (i.e., how you measure constructs of interest Descriptive Statistics - Used to organize and summarize data - Include measures of central tendency, measures of variability, and the correlation coefficient Measures of CentralTendency - Describe typical or average features of a distribution/set of values/data ○ 1) Mean-- the arithmetic average
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