Textbook Notes (368,774)
Canada (162,158)
York University (12,867)
Psychology (3,584)
PSYC 2510 (64)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 & Appendix B Statistics.pdf

4 Pages
40 Views
Unlock Document

Department
Psychology
Course
PSYC 2510
Professor
Agnieszka Kopinska
Semester
Fall

Description
Chapter 2 & Appendix B: Statistics Monday, September 26, 20112:00 PM Statistics: What It's About - The use of numbers - Statistical methods allow for the collection, classification - Statistics are just another way to quantify (assign numbers to) properties of objects or events of interest - The use of numbers increase precision of communication/description - Statistical methods are used to go beyond the numbers ○ Extracting info and permitting accurate interpretations Populations &Samples - Population-- all members of a group who are alike on at least one specific characteristic - Sample-- any number of cases less than the total number of cases in the population from which it is drawn - Samples are usually the object of studies - Info about samples is used to make inferences about the characteristics of the larger population as a whole - Samples must be representative of the population in order to draw meaningful and accurate inferences - Samples from different populations can be compared in a study (e.g., autistic children vs. normally developing children) - Samples must be comparative - Sample selection methods matter Types of Samples - Random sample-- each member of the pool has an equal probability of being selected on any given draw and each possible sample of members has an equal probability of being selected - Randomized sample-- each member of the sample has an equal chance of being assigned to a given condition of the experiment - Matched sample-- yields pairs of observations to produce highly comparable groups ○ Two participants are paired based on similarities in relevant characteristics and each takes part in one of the conditions, OR ○ The same participant takes part in both conditions ○ Most suitable for experiments in which there are only 2 conditions or groups Parametersand Statistics - Population parameters-- the properties of populations (e.g., λ) ○ E.g. the average number of books read by college graduates last year in North America Types of Data - Numerical Data ○ Tell us how much of a given property each sample member exhibits ○ Magnitude and rank-order data - Magnitude Data: Number indicating the amount of a property that exists along a continuum ("how much") - Rank-Order (Ordinal) Data: Amounts of a property expressed as a rank relative to other individuals (1st, 2nd, 3rd) - Categorical or Nominal Data ○ Information reflects mutually exclusive categories in which participants fall ○ Participants either display the attribute of they don't  E.g., male vs. female, fall vs. short, low mood vs. normative mood vs. elevated mood Unit 1 Page 1  E.g., male vs. female, fall vs. short, low mood vs. normative mood vs. elevated mood - Numerical (magnitude, ordinal) and categorical data are informative in their own way ○ Each form lends itself to certain statistical analyses ○ Choose carefully which type of data will help you answer your question (i.e., how you measure constructs of interest Descriptive Statistics - Used to organize and summarize data - Include measures of central tendency, measures of variability, and the correlation coefficient Measures of CentralTendency - Describe typical or average features of a distribution/set of values/data ○ 1) Mean-- the arithmetic average
More Less

Related notes for PSYC 2510

Log In


OR

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


OR

By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.


Submit