Textbook Notes (280,000)
CA (170,000)
York (10,000)
SOSC (500)
Chapter Full

SOSC 1930 Chapter Notes - Chapter Full: Coronary Artery Disease, Health Equity, Socioeconomic Status


Department
Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 1930
Professor
Yuka Nakamura
Chapter
Full

This preview shows pages 1-3. to view the full 32 pages of the document.
September 16th
The Question of Equity in Health
Inequality and Inequity are different concepts
- Inequality implies disparities in status, opportunity, treatment, etc.
oFor Example, as people age – both males and females – their health tends to
deteriorate, and it would be unreasonable to expect individuals of all ages to
have equal health
oWe consider differences to categorize people
Doctor’s great health and their knowledge of health give them a special
status. Not the fact that they merely study, and that is why they are
prestigious.
It comes down to the nature of their work, as they promote what is
needed and respected
- Health is more fundamental than income
oIncome is an aspect of life, income is nothing without health. In a sense, income
is a reward for hard work.
- There are natural inequalities in health that may not be considered unfair; ex as people
age, their health tends to deteriorate and it would be unreasonable to expect individuals
of all ages to have equal health
- Achieving complete equality of outcomes in health, therefore, may not be a possible or
desirable policy objective
Extreme:
- BRIC nations (Britain, Russia, India, China) where there is disparity of wealth. As they
have more billionaires than other countries. Money is in the possession of few people,
however, people are treated based on wealth
- OTHER HAND: Canada gives everyone equal opportunity, thus everyone gets a fair
chance to inspire everyone equally.
Midpoint:
- USA: Fees vary a lot based on the funding of each institution (EG. University/College)
** (In) equity incorporates an assessment of fairness
- An ethical principle. It is normative

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- References social justice and human rights
- Unnecessary, avoidable, unfair and unjust
oInfant Mortality
Every country keeps track of its infant mortality
- Grounded in principles of distributive justice in relation to resources and other processes
that address the question of fairness
Achieving complete equality of outcomes in health, therefore, may not be a possible or desirable
policy objective
Health issues are not individual, they are dealt in groups
oEg. Old people are naturally going to be more sick than young people
Some conditions are inevitable
Eg. Old Age
Prescription Drugs
oAs we are now told by our society to not endure pain,
rather use medicine to reduce pain
EQUALITY OF HEALTH IS NOT POSSIBLE
- “Equity is, thus, the most relevant concept for determining health policies, rather than
equality per se.”
- But what is equitable is not free of debate
- Equity in health could be interpreted as consisting of equality in outcomes among groups
or individuals who are similar from a genetic/age/sex perspective
- Yet, this is not a sufficient requirement for achieving health equity in a given society,
because it can allow large disparities in health outcomes between different groups
- Directed to providing equal opportunity to be healthy regardless of social group
membership
- Here, we see that equality remains an important concept
- Unjust social structures are often at the basis of health inequities

Only pages 1-3 are available for preview. Some parts have been intentionally blurred.

- Health inequities systematically put populations that are already socially
disadvantaged… at further disadvantage with respect to their health.
Social structure just means the way in our society is organized.
The Question of Equity in Health II
- Recall: Less tolerant of inequalities in health than in a variety of other inequalities (say
income).
- We understand that health to be a special good with both intrinsic and instrumental value
(vs. exclusively instrumental value of income
- Income in equality is necessary and acceptable (Income is a reward, motivating factor)
- Allow for income equality for a variety of reasons
- Health has an intrinsic value
- Health directly impacts (enables or obstructs) life chances
- “Health is among the most important conditions of human life and… capabilities…” (Sen,
23)
- “without health nothing is of any use not money nor anything else”
- Eg. Untouchables; Man has lots of money, but is quadrapoledic
- In the recent study by the World Bank… ill health and its consequences emerged from
interviews with over 60,000 poor persons as the primary reason for impoverishment
(Evans 2001)
- Bad health will limit you
- Equity tied to notion of fairness
- Cant intervene to make everyone have the same starting position
- ....health is a critical building block, or capability to a better and more meaningful life and
ill health a huge threat to social and economic well-being
oSocial aspect of well-being
- Here we want to note, to be taken up later in the course, that health itself is a complex
nothing (see for instance, Daniels et all, 1999)
- This complexity will have some influence on how we address the issue of equity
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version