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Chapter 5

SOSC 2652 Chapter Notes - Chapter 5: New York City Police Department, Iceberg, Broken Windows Theory

Social Science
Course Code
SOSC 2652
Anna Pratt

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Chapter 5- Police Strategies and Operations
This chapter discusses the key elements of community policing and the ways this model
has influenced how the police organize and deliver their services across the country
The specific strategies the police use to prevent and respond to crime are examined
The Evolution of Police Practise
The evolution of policing over the past century has been accompanied by changing
philosophies as to the best way to respond to crime and social disorder
With the introduction of mobile police in the 1920s and 1930s, a traditional (or
professional) model of policing emerged that was based on three Rs: random patrol,
rapid response, and reactive investigating
Traditional model of policing- a model of police work that is reactive, incident-drven, and
centred on random patrol
The central premise of random patrol, also known as the watch system, is that the mere
presence and visibility of patrol cars serves as a deterrent to crime and at the same time
makes citizens feel safer
Research studies have found that levels of crime are generally unaffected by increases
in the number of patrol cars, quicker response times by patrol officers, or the number of
arrests made by patrol officers
If the police only respond only when they are called and deal only with the incident at
hand, the reasons why the incident occurred in the first place remain unaddressed and
this increases the likelihood that similar incidents wll happen again
The emergence of modern-day community policing was due to the recognition that the
police cannot prevent and respond to crime on their own; they require the assistance of
variety of agencies and organiztions as well as community residents
Community Policing
The 1980s witnessed the reemergence of an approach to policing that focused on the
Community policing has its roots in Peel’s principles of Law Enforcement
Community Police- a philosophy management style and organizational strategy centred
on police-community relationships and problem solving to address problems of crime
and social disorder in communities
Community Policing has the following charecteristics
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1. It is an organizational strategy and philosophy- community policing is based on the
idea that the police and the community have to work together as equal partners to
identify, prioritize and solve problems with the goal of improving the quality of life
2. It requires a department-wide commintment- All personnel in the police service must
balance the need to maintain an effective police response to incidents of crime with the
goal of exploring new proactive intiatives aimed at solving problems before they arise or
3. It rests on decentralizing and personalizing police services- decentralizing offers line
officers the opportunity, freedom, and mandate to focus on community building and on
community-based problem solving, so that each and every neighborhood can become a
better place in which to live and work
Community policing involves substantial changes in the organization and delivery of
police services
The Principles of Community Policing
Community policing is based on the three Ps, prevention, problem solving, and
partnership (with the community)
The key principle of community policing are
Citizens are responsible for actively involving themselves in identifying and responding
to problems in their neighborhoods and communities
The community is a source of operational information and crime control knowledge for
the police
Police are more directly accountable to the community
Police have a proactive and preventive role in the community that goes beyond
traditional law enforcement
The cultural and gender mix of a police agency should reflect the community it serves
The operational structure of the police agency should facilitate broad consultation on
strategic and policing issues
Figuire 5.1- Police-Community Relations: Community Partnership versus Justice Process
Justice process- Information from community to Identify witness’ and offenders- Bring offenders
to court- Court Process- Community unlikely to be aware of what happens- Traditional Policing
Traditional policing-community depends on police and justice system; no other resources
mobilized outside the formal justice system
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