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Chapter 8

GCU 102 Chapter Notes - Chapter 8: Subsistence Agriculture, Crop Rotation, Shifting Cultivation

Cultural Geography
Course Code
GCU 102
Elizabeth Larson

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1 - Traditional Agricultural Geography
2 - Geography and Agriculture
3 - Study of agriculture has a long tradition in geography
4 - Major changes in agriculture worldwide over the last five
5 - Decline in number of people employed in farming (core and
6 - Use of chemical, mechanical, biotechnological innovations
(intensified farming)
7 - Increasingly integrated into wider economic systems; more
linked to manufacturing and finance
- Agriculture system face uncertain future
- Agricultural Practice
- Agrarian
- The way of life that is deeply embedded in the demands of

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- Agriculture
- Combination of science, art and business directed at the cultivation
of crops
and the raising of livestock for sustenance and profit
- Hunting and gathering
- Activities whereby people feed themselves by killing wild animals and
gathering fruits, roots, nuts, and other edible plants
- Subsistence agriculture
- A system in which agriculturalists consume most of that they produce
- Domestication of animals and plants could enable them to settle in
one place
over time
- Diminishing nowadays
- They are all a part of social system
- Three dominant forms
- Shifting cultivation
- Land rotation
- Rotating the fields within which cultivation occurs

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- Crop rotation
- Mainly in tropical forest
- To maintain soil fertility
- Crops planted are changed to balance the types of
withdrawn from and delivered to the soil
- Slash-and-burn
- Typical method to prepare a new site
- Existing plants are cropped close to ground, left to dry
for a
period, then burned
- Burning process adds valuable nutrients to the soil (e.g.
Potash) as fertilizer
- Ecologically destructive when large number of farmers
participate and in endangered species areas (e.g.
- Good response to fragile landscape; passive effectively
restoring plant nutrition to the soil
- Helps protect soil from leaching and erosion
- No manufactured fertilizer, pesticides, herbicides or
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