EDP Chapter 9.docx

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Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 9 9/30/2013 6:39:00 PM Describe advances in mental representation during the preschool years, including changes in make-believe play.  Language is most flexible means of mental representation  Piaget did not agree with this  He believed that sensorimotor activity leads to internal images of experience, which children then label with words  Make-believe play: o Excellent example of development o representation in early childhood o Three changes that reflect the preschool child’s growing mastery  Play detached from the real-life conditions associated with it  Ex. Block as phone  Play becomes less self-centered  Starting out, make-believe is directed toward self  Make-believe becomes less self-centered as children realize that agents and recipients of pretend actions can be independent of themselves  Play includes more complex combinations of schemes  Sociodramatic play- the make-believe play with others that is under way by the end of the second year and increases rapidly in complexity during early childhood  Symbol-real-world relations o Ex. Arranging furniture in a dollhouse the way it is arranged in your house o When we understand that a picture, model, or map corresponds to something specific in everyday life, we can use these tools to find out about objects and places we have not experienced o Dual representation- viewing a symbolic object as both an object in its own tight and a symbol o Exposing young children to diverse symbols- picture books, photographs, drawings, make-believe, and maps- helps them appreciate that one object can stand for another o With age, children come to understand a wide range of symbols that have little physical similarity to what they represent Describe what Piaget believed to be the deficiencies of preoperational thought.  Young children are not capable of operations- mental actions that obey logical rules  Egocentrism- failure to distinguish the symbolic viewpoints of others from one’s own o Children focus on their own viewpoints and assume that others perceive, think, and feel same way they do o Animistic thinking- belief that inanimate objects have lifelike qualities, such as thoughts, wishes, feelings, and intentions  Conservation- refers to the idea that certain physical characteristics of objects remain the same, even when their outward appearance changes o Centration- in Piaget’s theory, the tendency of preoperational children to focus on one aspect of a situation while neglecting other important features o Irreversibility- an inability to mentally go through a series of steps in a problem and then reverse direction, returning to the starting point  Hierarchial classification- the organization of objects into classes and subclasses on the basis of similarities and differences o Class inclusion problem Discuss recent research on preoperational thought and note the implications of such findings for the accuracy of Piaget’s preoperational stage.  When young children are given familiar and simplified problems, their performance appears more mature than Piaget assumed.  Preschoolers recognize differing perspectives, distinguish animate from inanimate objects, have flexible and appropriate notions of magic, and notice and reason about transformations and cause- and-effect relations  They show impressive skill at categorizing on the basis of non- observable characteristics and notice distinctions between appearance and reality, revealing that their thinking is not dominated by perceptual appearances  These findings challenge Piaget’s concept of stage  Rather than being absent in the preschool years, operational thinking develops gradually Describe three educational principles derived from Piaget’s theory.  Discovery learning o Children are encouraged to discover for themselves through spontaneous interaction with the environment  Sensitivity to children’s readiness to learn o Teachers introduce activities that build on children’s current thinking, challenging their incorrect ways of viewing the world. o They do not try to speed up development by imposing new skills before children indicate they are interested and ready  Acceptance of individual differences o All children go through the same sequence of development, but at different rates, thus teachers must plan activities for individual children and small groups, not just the whole class o Teachers evaluate each child’s educational progress in relation to the child’s previous development, rather than on the basis of normative standards, or average performance of same-age peers Contrast Piaget’s view of children’s private speech with the view of Vygotsky.  In contrast to Piaget, Vygotsky regarded language as the foundation for all higher cognitive processes  According to Vygotsky, private speech emerges out of social communication as adults and more skilled peers help children master challenging tasks within the zone of proximal development  Eventually, private speech is internalized as inner, verbal thought  Private speech- language used for self-guidance Describe features of social interaction that foster cognitive development.  Intersubjectivity- the process by which two participants who begin a task with different understandings arrive as shared understanding o Creates a common ground for communication  Scaffolding- adjusting
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