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EDP 3326 (15)
Chapter 11

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Baylor University
Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 11 10/9/2013 6:27:00 PM Describe changes in body size, body proportions, and skeletal maturity during middle childhood. Note secular trends in physical growth  School-age children’s growth is slow and regular, though large individual and ethnic variations exist in physical growth. On average, they add about 2 to 3 inches in height and 5 pounds in weight each year. By age 9, girls overtake boys in physical size  Secular trends in physical growth have occurred in industrialized nations because of improved health and nutrition, many children are growing larger and reaching physical maturity earlier than their ancestors  Secular trends in physical growth- changes in body size from one generation to the next  Bones continue to lengthen and broaden, and permanent teeth replace primary teeth. Tooth decay affects over half the U.S. school-age children, with especially high levels among low-SES children. One-third of school-age children suffer from malocclusion, making braces common by the end of elementary school  Malocclusion- a condition in which the upper and lower teeth do not meet properly Describe brain development in middle childhood, including the influences of neurotransmitters and hormones  Only a small gain in brain size occurs during middle childhood  White matter (myelinated nerve fibers) increases steadily  As interconnectivity among distant areas of the cerebral cortex increases, the prefontal cortex becomes a more effective ‘executive;, yielding more flexible, adaptive behavior  At the same time, gray matter (neurons and supportive material) peaks and then declines as a result of synaptic pruning, and accompanying reorganization and selection of brain circuits result in more efficient information processing Identify common health problems in middle childhood. Discuss their causes and consequences, and cite ways to alleviate them  Poverty stricken children in developing countries and in North America continue to suffer from serious and prolonged malnutrition, which can permanently impair physical and mental development  Overweight and obesity have increased dramatically in both industrialized and developing nations, especially in the United States. Although heredity contributes to obesity, parental feeding practices, maladaptive eating habits, reduced sleep, lack of exercise, and Western high-fat diets are more powerful influences. Obese children are often socially rejected, are more likely to report feeling depressed, and display more behavior problems than their normal-weight peers.  Family-based interventions aimed at changing parents; and children’s eating patterns and lifestyles are the most effective approaches to treating childhood obesity. Rewarding obese children for reducing sedentary time is effective in getting them to enjoy and engage in more physical activity. Schools can help by ensuring regular physical activity and serving healthier meals  The most common vision problem, myopia, is influenced by heredity, early biological trauma, and time spent reading and doing other close work. It is one of the few health conditions that increases with family income and education.  Although ear infections decline during the school years, many low- SES children experience some hearing loss because of chronic, untreated otitis media  heredity is responsible for most cases of nocturnal enuresis, through a failure of muscular responses that inhibit urination or a hormonal imbalance that permits too much urine to accumulate. The most effective treatment is a urine alarm that works according to conditioning principles  asthma is the most frequent cause of school absence and childhood hospitalization. It occurs more often among African-American and poverty-stricken children, perhaps because of inner-city pollution, stressful home lives, and lack of access to good health care. Childhood obesity is also a factor  children with severe chronic i
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