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United States (206,132)
EDP 3326 (15)
Chapter 12

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Educational Psychology
EDP 3326
Janet Bagby

Chapter 12 10/16/2013 7:29:00 PM Describe the major characteristics of concrete operational thought, including limitations of cognition during this stage  In the concrete operational stage, children’ thought becomes more logical, flexible, and organized. Mastery of conservation requires decentration and reversibility in thinking  School-age children are also better at hierarchical classification and seriation, including transitive inference, the ability to seriate mentally. Their spatial reasoning improves, as indicated bu their understanding of cognitive maps Discuss follow-up research on concrete operational thought, noting the implications of findings for the accuracy of Piaget’s concrete operational stage  Concrete operational children think logically only when dealing with concrete, tangible information, and mastery of concrete operational tasks occurs gradually. Specific cultural practices, especially those associated with schooling, promote mastery of Piagetian tasks  Some researchers attribute the gradual development of operational thought to gains in information-processing speed. Case’s neo- Piagetian theory proposes that with practice, freeing up space in working memory for combining old schemes and generating new ones. Eventually, children consolidate schemes into central conceptual structures and are increasingly able to coordinate and integrate multiple dimensions Describe changes in information processing abilities in middle childhood  Brain development contributes to increases in processing speed and capacity and to gains in inhibition, facilitating many aspects of thinking  During middle childhood, attention becomes more sustained, selective, and adaptable. Attention (and memory) strategies develop in a four step sequence o Production deficiency (failure to use the strategy) o Control deficiency (failure to execute the strategy consistently) o Utilization deficiency ( consistent use of the strategy, but with little or no improvement in performance) o Effective strategy use  Children become better at planning, particularly when adults turn over responsibility to then and guide and support as needed  Deficits in executive processing and inhibition may underlie symptoms of attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). ADHD leads to serious academic and social problems  Memory strategies also improve. Rehearsal appears first, followed by organization and then elaboration. With age, children use several memory strategies at once  Development of the long-term knowledge base facilitates strategic memory processing. Children’s motivation to use what they know also contributes. Cite evidence that both heredity and environment contribute to intelligence  Heritability estimates and adoption research reveal that intelligence is a product of both heredity and environment  Adoption studies indicate that the black-white IQ gap is substantially determined by environment  A dramatic generational increase in IQ also supports the role of environmental factors Describe cultural influences on intelligence test performance, and disc
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