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Chapter 7.4

CHEM 1A Chapter Notes - Chapter 7.4: Magnetic Quantum Number, Photon, Rydberg Constant

Course Code
Arnold Yuan

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Lecture 6: Electron Clouds
7.4 pg. 294-295
7.4 The Wave Nature of Matter: The de Broglie Wavelength, the Uncertainty Principle,
and Indeterminacy
Louis de Broglie 1924, 1927 – electrons have wavelike nature
2 slit experiment – see an interference pattern instead of 2 bright spots
interference pattern caused by electrons interfering with themselves  electrons
individually have a wavelike nature
de Broglie wavelength- wavelength of electron related to KE
de Broglie relation:
h is Planck’s constant
if you place a laser right after the 2 slits  no more interference pattern, and flash always
originates from either one slit or the other
cannot simultaneously observe both the wave nature and particle nature of an electron
complementary properties – exclude one another
velocity – wave-like nature
position – particle nature
cannot simultaneously measure position and velocity of electron
Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle:
Δx ×m Δv ≥ h
- more accurately you know the position of an electron (the smaller Δx), the less
accurately you can know its velocity (the bigger Δv) and vice versa
Newton’s laws deterministic – present determines the future
Probability distribution maps – stats to show where electron is likely to be found
Indeterminacy – future path is indeterminate
7.5-7.6 pg. 297-303
7.5 Quantum Mechanics and the Atom
velocity directly related to energy
energy and position therefore complementary
orbital – describes electron position – probability distribution map
= Ηψ Εψ
H is Hamiltonian operator – operations that represent total energy of electron within the
E – energy of electron
– wave function – describes wavelike nature of the electron – mathematical descriptionΨ
of the amplitude of the electron wave
Ψ2 – orbital – position probability distribution map
Solution to equation is a bunch of possible wave functions, which correspond to orbitals
Quantum numbers:
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