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CAS BI 108 (112)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2 Outline-Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life.docx

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Boston University
CAS BI 108
Francis Monette

BI108 Chapter 2 Outline: Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life 2.1—How DoesAtomic Structure Explain the Properties of Matter? • An element only consists of one kind of atom • Each element has a unique number of protons • The number of neutrons differs among isotopes • The behavior of electrons determines chemical bonding and geometry Summary: Living organisms are composed of the same set of chemical elements as the rest of the universe.An atom consists of a nucleus of proteins and neutrons, and a characteristic configuration of electrons that determines the chemical properties. 2.2—How DoAtoms Bond to Form Molecules? • Covalent bonds consist of shared pairs of electrons • Ion attractions form by electrical attraction • Hydrogen bonds may form within or between molecules with polar covalent bonds • Hydrophobic interactions bring together nonpolar molecules • Van der waals forces involve contact between atoms Summary: Some form strong covalent bonds by sharing electron pairs. Unequal sharing produces polarity. Other a
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