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Chapter 2

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CAS BI 108
Francis Monette

Small Molecules and the Chemistry of Life 1. Oxygen has two isotopes a. This plays into 2 O in that those who live closer to the ocean experience “heavier” rain than those more inland. This plays into the enamel of our teeth, which is made of calcium phosphate 3a (4 2) 2. Chemistry aspect a. Nucleus = (protons + neutrons) and is surrounded by electrons b. Mass is in units called dalton (neutron and proton each weight 1 dalton and an electron weighs 0.0005 dalton) c. Our body 6 elements that make up most of the mass of living i. Sodium and potassium are essential for nerve function organisms: ii. Calcium acts as a biological signal C, N, O, P, and S iii.Iodine is a component of a vital hormone iv. Magnesium is bound to chlorophyll in plants d. Elements i. Mass of an elements is number of protons + number of neutrons [# of protons is the atomic number] ii. Elements in the same vertical column have similar properties x iii. element where x is the mass and y is the atomic number y 1. Hydrogen has three types 1 a. H hydrogen 1 proton 0 neutrons 1 2 H b. 1 deuterium 1 proton 1 neutron 3 H c. 1 tritium 1 protons 2 neutrons iv. Atomic weight is the average of the mass numbers of the isotopes of that element v. Many isotopes are stable but some are NOT and these are called radioisotopes which give off energy in the form of α, β ,∧γ radiation (Simple: This means that these elements turn into different elements in a short amount of time) 1. This is ultimately harmful but sometimes it’s good in that we use it to attack cancer cells a. 60Co is used to kill cancer cells vi. Orbitals are subdivided into electron shells which contain electrons 1. First shell s orbital 2. Second shell 1 s orbital + 3 p orbitals = 4 orbitals 3. Etc. e. Bonding i. Covalent bonding (Extremely strong so hard to break) 1. Sharing a pair of electrons 2. Non polar : “equal” sharing 3. Polar: “unequal” sharing in that one element pulls more on the electrons than the other
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