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Chapter 2

CAS PO 331 Chapter Notes - Chapter 2: Watergate Scandal, Energy Crisis, Stable Distribution

Political Science
Course Code
CAS PO 331
Kate Krimmel

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Issue Emergence --> Agenda Setting --> Alternative Selection --> Enactment --> Implementation -->
Evaluation (Standard textbook method)
The stages of the policy process is not perfect because many policy ideas do not make it all the way to the end and
evaluation and processing happens simultaneously
"Black box": Internal workings of the input to output translation is not explained
Product of a system that is influenced by the changing environment
It is both influenced and influence the environment
Input-output model; with input being various issues and output being polices
Federalism; power is shared between central gov't and local gov't
Open public meeting laws opens up the gov't to scrutiny
The Structural Environment
Censuses are taken to determine the demographics of each area
Population growth has slowed down after the baby boomers partly due to raising cost of living
and immigration
A Growing, but Aging, Population
Hispanics and African American populations are rising
Race and Ethnicity
Caused stagnation in median family salary
Increase in female pay
Many more opportunities for women
Stable distribution of both sexes but the number of women in the workforce are rapidly rising
and men declining slightly
Gender and Labor Force Participation
As the population gets older, more social security is drawn and increase in an
overworking society
Older men leaving the workforce and younger women entering
Causes many people to work past retirement, making the job market full
Rising need for health care
Work, retirement, and pensions
US will continued to grow at a faster rate than all European countries
Rate of assimilation; language barriers
Blacks and Hispanics tend to earn less; low homeownership
Self-identified racial groups demand representation
The workforce, immigration, and intermarriage
The Policy Implication of Demographic Changes
The Social Environment
After WWII, people were optimistic about the future of America
Vietnam War; growing anti-war sentiment
Martin Luther King war murdered
Nixon Watergate scandal
Inflation, unemployment and energy crisis
American industries competing Europe and Japan
Major recession in the 80's
Starting the mid-60's, national mood decayed
National mood is how the public feels about the way gov't is dealing with problems
Public opinion polls are important to feel the "national mood"
The Political Environment
The Policy Process as a System
Birkland Chapter 2: Elements of the Policy-Making System
Saturday, January 18, 2014
9:24 PM
PO 331 Page 1
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