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CAS PH 150 (11)
Chapter 4

Chapter 4

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CAS PH 150
Matt Cartmill

1/28/14 Notes RACEAND ETHNICITY Pg 55-66; pg 78-81 From Immigrants to White ethnics • American industrialization and rise to global prominence occurred simultaneously Industrialization and Immigration • What stimulated immigration (from Europe)? o The Industrial revolution (technology shift) o Immigrants were pushed out of Europe for embracing technology thatAmerica embraced in its jobs o Work of production in Europe was labor intensive (draft animals or hand)  Industrialization destroyed this tradition o New technology was capital intensive (dependent on machine power); decreased need for human laborers o First waves of immigrants: Old Immigration, came from northern and western Europe in 1820’s o Second wave of immigrants: New Immigration, began arriving from Southern and Eastern Europe in the 1880s o Drastic decline in immigration after 1920s European origins and conditions of entry • Three subgroups of European immigrants (order of arrival): o Protestants from northern and western Europe  Danes, Dutch, English, French, Germans, Norwegians, Swedes, and Welsh  Dominant group—race and religion; Protestant ethic (individualism, democratic gov’t)  Easy to fit into society since they were so similar to dominant group  More skilled and educated (came from highly developed nations)  Immigrants from Norway: • Sent a lot of immigrants for its small population • Mostly prosperous farmers searching for cheap land; upper- Midwest states  Immigrants from Germany: • Larger immigration stream than Norway (25% ofAmericans were German) • Moved to newly opened farm land; but later immigrants usually settled in urban areas who were skilled workers and artisans (double penetration of German immigrants—rural and urban) • Germans did well—education, wealth, etc.  Assimilation patterns • Protestants from northern and western Europe assimilated easily despite some sting of rejection/prejudice/discrimination at first. They moved from acculturation to integration and equality was pretty smooth. o Largely Catholic immigrant laborers from Ireland and Southern and Eastern Europe  Non-protestant, less-educated, and less skilled (“immigrant laborers”)  Irish, Bulgarians, Greeks, Hungarians, Italians, Poles, Russians, Serbs, Slovaks, Ukrainians  Very traditional culture (male-dominated, arranged marriages, subordinate children) so it was hard to acculturate to industrializing/individualistic culture of US • Reason for higher level of rejection/discrimination  Less likely to enter rural economy (most land claimed—plus they were sick of farming from the crazy conditions they were running from back at home); settled in cities  Worked in plants, mills, mines, and factories—they were considered cheap labor for the industry owners  Discrimination
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