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CAS PH 150 (11)
Chapter 2

Chapter 2

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Department
Philosophy
Course
CAS PH 150
Professor
Matt Cartmill
Semester
Fall

Description
01/26/13 Race and Ethnicity Reading Pg 24-40 and pg 42-55 PAGES 24-40 Key Concepts in Dominant-Minority Relations (4 concepts) • Distinguish between individual analysis and group analysis (psychological vs sociological) and trace connection • Thought vs. action relationships o Individual level: prejudice vs. discrimination o Group level: ideological racism vs. institutional discrimination INDIVIDUAL Prejudice (1) • Definition: the tendency of an individual to think about other groups in negative ways, to attach negative emotions to those groups, and to prejudge individuals on the basis of their group memberships. o Individual prejudice is composed of (1) thinking and (2) feeling. o Prejudice people think of groups in terms of stereotypes (cognitive prejudice) —generalizations that are thought to apply to group members o Affective prejudice—feeling negative emotions towards a group o We can say someone is prejudiced to the extent that they use stereotypes in his or her thinking OR has negative emotional reactions to other groups • Causes of Prejudice o Psychological and Cultural causes of prejudice are both plausible o This book will focus on theories that stress sociological/cultural causes • Competitions between groups and the origins of prejudice o Single most important origin of prejudice is competition between groups; used to justify the privileged status of winning group o Prejudice is result of competition rather than cause; stereotypes emerge about the enemy groups—prejudice emerges from heat of the contest but can remain for years after o 1950s experiment: Robber’s Cave (Muzafer Sherif)  Divided campers into two groups (rattlers vs. eagles) and competed, expressed negative feelings (prejudice) against other group  Sherif attempted to reduce harsh feelings and bring together groups, but they just expressed their enmity  Sherif created activates in which the two groups had to work together, this decreased tension—proved that competition causes prejudice (not the other way around) • Culture, socialization, and the persistence of prejudice o Prejudice usually outlives conditions of its creation o Swedish economist Gunnar Myrdal suggests prejudice perpetuates through time via the vicious cycle of prejudice, a self-fulfilling prophecy  Ex: slavery; stayed intact partly to motivate stratification system and partly to justify its past existenceAND individual prejudices are reinforced by observation of inferior status of minority group (this creates cycle) o Prejudice is passed down to us through socialization (good and bad groups) • The development of prejudice in children o Children realize differences and stereotypes at a very early age (before 3 years old) and learn the proper attitudes and stereotypes to give each group o Parents may not be obvious about socializing racist tendencies but children pick up on it and conform for social acceptance by parent o Making distinctions by race or gender is normal and helpful for children, but attaching the negative stereotypes is socialized and can be controlled o Thus, changing levels of prejudice in children (0-6 months) may reflect an interaction between children’s changing mental capacities and their environment rather than a simple or straightforward learning of racist cultural beliefs or values  Doyle andAboud (1995) found prejudice was highest in kindergarteners and decreased by third grade. • Social distance scales o Social distance is the degree of intimacy that a person is willing to accept in his or her relations with members of other groups. (close kinship to exclusion from country) o Emory Bogardus (1933) invented social distance scale, specifying seven degrees of social distance:  To close kinship by marriage, to my club as personal chums, to my street as neighbors, to employment in my occupation, to citizenship in my country, as visitors only to my country, would exclude from my country  We rank the same from year to year (northern Europeans, poles, and Jews are ranked in middle third, Koreans and Japanese are bottom third, and AfricanAmericans andAmerican Indians are ranked toward bottom. • Modern racism o Prejudice has assumed a more subtle and indirect form, consistent with the growing sensitivity ofAmericans, the success of the civil rights campaign of 50s and 60s, and the resultant societal rejection of blatant prejudice, and the growing resources of minority groups and their enhanced ability to protect themselves from attacks. o Described by multiple terms: modern racism, color-blind racism, and symbolic racism.  People prejudiced in these ways reject old-fashioned blatant prejudice and traditional views. Often proclaim equality, but prejudice lurks beneath surface  Eduardo Bonilla-Silva argues that new form of prejudice is often expressed in objective terms. (“they don’t emphasize education enough”) and rationalizes status quo and permits segregated neighborhoods  In actuality, these patterns were created deliberately by real estate boards, school boards, city councils, zoning boards, and other institutions. Now these modern racists can support this without seeming racist Discrimination (2) • Definition: the unequal treatment of a person or persons based on group membership • Social situations in which prejudice is strongly approved, discrimination can be evoked. GROUP Ideological Racism (3) • Definition: a belief system that asserts that a particular group is inferior, is the group or societal equivalent of individual prejudice • Used to legitimize inferior status of minority groups; incorporated into culture of a society • Racism exists apart from individuals in society (ex: elaborate system of beliefs to justify slavery inAmerican south) • People socialized into societies with strong racist ideologies are likely to absorb racist ideas and be highly prejudiced. • Prejudice may still exist even in the absence of an ideology of racism Institutional Discrimination (4) • Definition: refers to a pattern of unequal treatment based on group membership that is built into the daily operations of society, whether or not it is consciously intended. • It can be obvious and overt (forbiddingAfricanAmericans to vote) or it can operate subtly and without conscious intent (public schools use aptitude tests that are biased in favor of the dominant group which affect those allowed to take college preparatory classes) • Do not have to be personally prejudiced to implement these discriminatory policies— it can be an unconscious effort • Racist ideologies and institutional discrimination are created to sustain the positions of dominant and minority groups in the stratification system AGLOBAL PERSPECTIVE Immigration and Globalization • Do not accept analysis of single nation as adequate proof for theory; look at multiple nations (global) • More than 3% of world’s population lives outside their countries of birth • Most powerful dimension of globalization is economic, people flow from areas of low opportunity to areas with greater opportunity • NAFTA(I don’t feel like reading this) PAGES 42-55 Question: how to individuals that are part
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