Chapter 2 Exercises and Notes
#9: What is selective attention?
Selective attention is giving preferential treatment for some statements and not others, or
in other words, failing to consider evidence or arguments that do not support preferred
claims or positions. Selective attention can occur without the awareness that it’s
happening—in order to overcome selective attention a conscious effort must be made to
look for opposing evidence and consider all relevant reasons.
#15: What is subjective relativism?
Subjective relativism is the idea that truth depends on what someone believes, meaning
the truth doesn’t depend on the way things are, but solely on what someone believes;
truth is relative to persons. For example a belief can be true for one person, but not for
#18: What is social relativism?
Social relativism is the view that truth is relative to societies. The claim is that truth
doesn’t depend on an individual’s beliefs, but on society’s beliefs. For example a claim
may be true for one society, but not for another.
#19: What is philosophical skepticism?
Philosophical skepticism holds that we know much less than we think we do or nothing at
all. Furthermore, they claim that knowledge requires certainty, meaning if we are to know
anything, we must be certain of it. In order for knowledge to be knowledge, it must be
beyond any possibility of doubt.
#1: What is a deductive argument?