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Chapter 2

Birkland Chapter 2 Elements of the Policy-Making System.pdf

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Political Science
CAS PO 331
Kate Krimmel

Birkland Chapter 2: Elements of the Policy-Making System Saturday, January 18, 2014 9:24 PM - The stages of the policy process is not perfect because many policy ideas do not make it all the way to the end and evaluation and processing happens simultaneously ○ Issue Emergence --> Agenda Setting --> Alternative Selection --> Enactment --> Implementation --> Evaluation (Standard textbook method) I. The Policy Process as a System ○ Input-output model; with input being various issues and output being polices  "Black box": Internal workings of the input to output translation is not explained  Product of a system that is influenced by the changing environment  It is both influenced and influence the environment a. The Structural Environment  Separation of Power  Federalism; power is shared between central gov't and local gov't  Open public meeting laws opens up the gov't to scrutiny b. The Social Environment  Censuses are taken to determine the demographics of each area i. A Growing, but Aging, Population □ Population growth has slowed down after the baby boomers partly due to raising cost of living and immigration ii. Race and Ethnicity □ Hispanics and African American populations are rising iii. Gender and Labor Force Participation □ Stable distribution of both sexes but the number of women in the workforce are rapidly rising and men declining slightly  Caused stagnation in median family salary  Increase in female pay  Many more opportunities for women iv. The Policy Implication of Demographic Changes □ The workforce, immigration, and intermarriage  Work, retirement, and pensions ◊ As the population gets older, more social security is drawn and increase in an overworking society ◊ Older men leaving the workforce and younger women entering ◊ Causes many people to work past retirement, making the job market full ◊ Rising need for health care  Immigration ◊ US will continued to grow at a faster rate than all European countries ◊ Rate of assimilation; language barriers ◊ Blacks and Hispanics tend to earn less; low homeownership ◊ Self-identified racial groups demand representation c. The Political Environment  Public opinion polls are important to feel the "national mood" □ National mood is how the public feels about the way gov't is dealing with problems  After WWII, people were optimistic about the future of America  Starting the mid-60's, national mood decayed ◊ Vietnam War; growing anti-war sentiment ◊ Martin Luther King war murdered ◊ Nixon Watergate scandal ◊ Inflation, unemployment and energy crisis ◊ American industries competing Europe and Japan ◊ Major recession in the 80's ◊ Major recession in the 80's  Polls of what people consider to be "most important problem" □ Energy crisis 1974 □ Economic issues 1984 □ Defense during the Cold War era and Vietnam War in the mid 60's □ Healthcare under Clinton and Obama □ Terrorism and war after 9/11 rebounded people's faith in the gov't; quick recovery  Dissatisfaction began with the wars in Iraq and Afghanistan that caused the recession  People feel disconnected to the gov't □ Lack of voice and participation □ President r
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