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The Science of Muddling Through -Charles Lindbolm.pdf

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Political Science
CAS PO 331
Kate Krimmel

"The Science of Muddling Through" -Charles Lindbolm Saturday, January 25, 2014 2:20 PM I. By Root or By Branch ○ First method: "Rational comprehensive (Root)"  Restrict attention to relativelyfew values and few alternativesignoring the countless options  Formalized in literature but impossible to practice □ Time and money that can be allocated is always limited  Clarification of values different from empirical analysis  Policy formulationis "means-ends" analysis □ Isolate the ends and then determine the means □ Good policy is the best means for the desired ends  Every important relevant factor is taken into account  Rely heavily on theory and blueprints making it useless for complex ideas ○ Second method:"Successive limited comparisons (Branch)"  Select values and goals that are closelyrelated  Does not use means-ends analysis  Various analysts agree on what is a "good policy" □ Analysis is limited  Possible outcomes,alternativepotential policies, and affected values are neglected □ No comparisons eliminatesreliance on theories □ Preferencesare usually ignored  Very difficult to rank values to be discussed  Conflicts of majority's preferences  Social values do not always have the same relative values □ Sacrifices always need to be made in policy making □ Always a problem of adjustments at the margin  Evaluation and em
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