Textbook Notes (280,000)
US (110,000)
CSUS (80)
PSYC (40)
Chapter 6

PSYC 168 Chapter Notes - Chapter 6: Cultural Learning, Eurasian Blue Tit, Mirror Neuron

Course Code
PSYC 168
Dani L Binegar

This preview shows half of the first page. to view the full 3 pages of the document.
Ch. 6: Cultural Transmission
- Cultural transmission: The transfer of information from individual to individual through social
learning or teaching
- Social learning: The process of learning by watching others
- Imo and her sweet potatoes
- Stone handling
- Was present in individuals younger than the first to do it, but not in individuals older
What is Cultural Transmission?
- A system of information transfer that affects an individual’s phenotype by means of either
teacher or some form of social learning
- What’s So Important About Cultural Transmission?
- Information is passed from individual to individual throughout generations (it does
not die out with the individual)
- Can have a dramatic impact within one generation- it occurs much faster than
natural selection
- Effects of Others On Behavior
- Involves a “model” (tutor, demonstrator) and an “observer”
- Local enhancement and social facilitation involve a model and an observer, but are
not cultural transmission
- Local enhancement: (term by William Thorpe) Individuals learn from one another
because they are drawn to a particular area because another individual was in that location
- Ex: If a bird is drawn to a location because other birds are foraging there and it
learns via individual learning, local enhancement is at play
- Social facilitation: The presence of a model, regardless of what is does, is thought to
facilitate learning on the part of an observer (rather than an action drawing the observer)
- Ex: If animals forage with other animals for safety rather than going to the area
for an advantage in food.
- “Safety in numbers”
- A study conducted showed a capuchin monkey alone introduced to a novel food. In
treatment 2, other capuchins were introduced to see if social facilitation was at play (it did not
affect the lone capuchin). In treatment 3, the other monkeys were eating a familiar food and the
lone capuchin was more likely to eat the novel food, meaning local enhancement was at work
- Social Learning
- Ex: Bandura’s Bobo Doll
- Imitation and copying
- Imitation
- Acquisition of a topographically novel response through observation of a
demonstrator making that response
- Must include a new behavior
- New spatial manipulation
- Lead to the achievement of some goal
-Ex: Birds pulling the foil off of milk cartons after seeing one Blue Tit doing it
- Ex: Birds who saw another bird using their foot to open a food item were more
likely to use their foot, if they saw a bird use their beak, they were more likely to use their beak
- “perspective taking” --> when imitating an observer use their right hand, most
people will imitate with their left hand, not imitating precisely
- Mirror neurons
- Copying
- Repeats what it has seen a model do
- Usually rewarded
You're Reading a Preview

Unlock to view full version