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Chapter 42

PSY 111 Chapter Notes - Chapter 42: Classical Conditioning, Lightning, Observational Learning

Course Code
PSY 111
Megan L Meyer

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Chapter 42: Basic Learning Concepts and Classical Conditioning
I. How Do We Learn?
A. Psychologists state that learning is the process of getting new and relatively
enduring information or behaviors.
1. Learning helps one to adapt to environments.
2. Learning helps one to expect and prepare for significant events.
3. One learns to repeat acts that bring rewards
4. We learn new behaviors by observing events, watching others, and
through language,
B. We learn by association
1. Example: Suppose you were to eat and smell freshly baked bread and
find it amazing. The next time you see and smell fresh bread, you’ll
expect that it’ll feel amazing when you eat some.
C. Ways learned associated often appear subtly:
1. Give someone a red pen when correcting essays, they’ll spot more errors
and give lower grades.
2. When voting, those are more likely to support taxes to help education if
their assigned voting place is in a school.
3. After being given dirty money, people become more selfish and
exploitative. After given clean money, they become more unselfish and
D. Learned associations also feed habitual behaviors.
1. Example: repeated behaviors in a given context will make the behaviors
become associated with the contexts. Then, the next experiences of the
context will evoke one’s habitual responses.
2. On average, behaviors become habitual after about 66 days.
E. Other animals also learn by association. DIfficult animals can learn to associate
their own behaviors with their own outcomes.
1. Example: a sea seal will clap and bark repeatedly, which will prompt
those to toss it a herring.
F. Associative behavior: learning the process of acquiring through experience
new information or behaviors; earning that certain events occur together.
G. The process of learning associations is conditioning.Takes 2 forms:
1. Classical conditioning: learn to associate two stimuli and thus to
anticipate events.
a) Stimulus
: any event or situation that arouse a response.
b) Respondent behavior
: associate stimuli one cannot control and
one responds automatically.
c) Example: a flash of lightning signals an impending crack of
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