HIST-158 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1-9: Embezzlement, Subaltern Studies, Quechua People

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Published on 10 Nov 2016
Georgetown University
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Revolution in the Andes
The Age of Túpac Amaru
By Sergio Serulnikov
Chapter 1: The Violence of Facts
-massive uprising of the Andean people: 1780s (early) (1)
-whole insurgent armies organized from Cusco in Peru south to Chile and Argentina (1)
-at the hub was Potosí, which had one of the largest silver resources (2)
-from the caciques and other ethnic authorities, Spanish treasury drew revenue (2)
-in Cusco, 17000 soldiers were mobilized against Tupac Amaru forces
-this was the first time the Crown had to mobilize its armies since distant days of conquest (2)
-idea/demand that govt of the Andes be restored to the land’s ancient owners (3)
Chapter 2: The Violence of Time
-“forgetting, and getting one’s history wrong, are essential factors in the making of a nation” (5)
-blood ties important: Peruvian and Bolivian upper classes not blind to cultural heritage of
populations they ruled (5)
-“Incas yes, Indians no”— racism of the era (6)
-popular movements, growing influence of indigenista and Marxist intellectuals arose new change (6)
-new movements want balance, inequality to end
-attempts to recognize Quechuas and Aymaras as full citizens (6)
-Andean leader= Túpac —> Andean leader that embodied the resistance by the people— all the
people and not just indians— to colonial oppression—> “patriotic saga” (6)
-Tupac appealed to American/Peruvian patriotism (7)
-social antagonisms the rebellion had unleashed were as damaging to the Espanoles Americanos as to
the Espanoles Europeos (7)
-Fransisco Madero had “unleashed the tiger” in his zeal to transform Mexico into a liberal democracy
-the Spanish came in and destructively changed a system that was working for 200 years
-the rebellion had been preceded by the spread of prophecies, announcing the changing on an era
which would put Spaniards out of power (8)
-they were inspired by their projection into the future of an idealized golden age from the past (8)
-lots of social change that we must look at to understand the uprising
-the unequal and combined influence of political history, subaltern studies, microhistory, and
postcolonial theories encouraged research on the role of the popular sectors in the fall of the Spanish
and the formation of new national states (15)
Chapter 3: Indian Communities Do Politics:
-precise beginning of Tupamarista revolution was in small rural village in northern Potosí— not in
Cusco (17)
-Chayanta: hosted thirteen native communities
-utopian project of transplanting Old World forms of social organization in the Americas
-the indigenous did everything on their own terms: converting to Catholicism, recognizing the
authority of their colonial rulers, fulfilling economic obligations to the Crown (18)
-refused to give up their ancestral residence patterns, ayllus (extended kin groups) (18)
-some andeans in Andean areas (land tenure system) lived in either harsh highlands or fertile valleys
down below = “vertical archipelago system” (18)
-Spanish rule making it harder for Andean communities: harder to bear the burdens that were raining
down upon them (21) class struggles compounded by intense confrontations
-the Crown wanted to reduce embezzlement of tribute money by corregidores and ethnic chiefs (22)
-inter and intra class battles for Indian labor and agrarian production = social unrest (22)
-for indigenous peoples: their causes for distress were shared by everyone of their same social
condition (22)
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Chapter 4: Rituals of Justice, Acts of Subversion
-ideological core of rebellion: when the list of mita laborers who would be sent to Potosi was being
drawn up, second episode occurred when Katari arrived in Macha with his official appointment as
caique that the Audencia had granted him in exchange for the release of the corregidor (32)
-Spanish domination over the Andean peoples was expressed in elaborate public rituals by means of
which the Indians manifested their submission to the Crown (33)
-ceremonies: tribute payment, mita service, religious feasts, etc. (33)
-these ceremonies symbolized their submission to European rulers, but it also indicated the
implementation of indigenous concepts of justice and political legitimacy (33)
-Andeans promised to meet economic obligations to the Crown, but asked to keep Qatari’s requests
bc he’s the voice that natives listen to (34)
-Tupac Amaru proclaimed himself as Inca king (34)
Chapter 5: The Idea of the Inca
-Tupac: spoke Spanish and Quechua, received education which included Latin (35-36)
-original name: Jose Gabriel
-aristocratic family, landowner, cacique, administered economic resources of his communities (36)
-claimed kinship with the last Incan emperor
-the royal proclamation was a fake: the corregidor was hanged, and the man that hanged the
corregidor became a new emperor (37)
-in Cusco: what had been defined as the Inca cultural revival and the high social standing of the
native aristocracy among both indigenous peoples and white settlers accounts for differences in
social realities in Peru— these shaped the relationship bw indigenous population and colonial
society (39-40)
-most Andean lords were bilingual, lots of social and kinship networks with creole elites
-meanwhile, in the south, such as the Charcas area, the characters were rich and powerful, but did not
have the lineage and education to be treated as equals with Spanish (40)
-Cusco society in the years b4 the Tupac Amaru rebellion was at point of greatest balance bw Andean
nobility and creole elite in the history of Peru (40-41)
-political data
Chapter 6: Cusco Under Siege
-Tupac returns from campaign in mid-December
-situation in Cusco was deteriorating (49)
-Tupac on Dec. 28th went to camp on the outskirts of Cusco and destroy the aerial of viceregal
-“Mine is all that remains of the blood of the Incas, kings of the kingdom” (50)
-battle took place Jan 8, Indian’s failed
-although numerous Andean people backed the rebellion, their support was not unanimous (52)
-poor families were hesitant to rebel, while those that had political autonomy, political resources
were more likely to rebel (53)
-noble Inca families did not want to risk everything on a revolt (53)
-overall failure of Indian siege —> displaced the center of the insurrection southward (54)
Chapter 7: “Perverted in These Revolutions
-while Tupamarista stuff was occurring in Cusco, situation in Charcas was deteriorating week by
week (55)
-after the corregidor of Chayanta in northern Potosi was expelled and Tomas Katari was installed as
the new cacique of the Macha community, the social order collapsed in Chayanta (55)
-Indians beat and imprisoned their cacique (56); cut his head off
-massive recruitment of troops: soldiers sent to the province to avenge bloody assault on Spanish
militias (57)
-indigenous stockpiled maize, meat, cocoa leaves, etc.
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-everyone entering the locations was searched
-the political unrest provoked a deroutinization of everyday life (57)
-violence against caciques pervaded (57)
-Katari became a middleman between the Andean peoples and the Spanish rules (60)
-Katari let Spanish rulers know that if the Andean peoples claims were not addressed, !
the Kingdom will be lost” (61)
-Katari was ambushed and then killed (62)
-this further exacerbated the indigenous communities, and they gave him a Christian burial
-what it meant to be a Christian
-the Indians were Catholic in their own way, just as they were the king’s subjects in their own way
—> transculturation
Chapter 8: The Road to Chuquisaca
-transformation of rebellion into an anti colonial war (65)
-Katari became a martyr — “since our king katari is dead, lets all die killing”
-the process of regional expansion and political radicalization culminated in the siege of Chuquisaca
-Damaso and Nicolas Katari took over, wanted a peasant utopia infused with nativist utopia
described on p. (68)
-however, the siege of Chuqisaca had bad consequences for the future of indigenous movement, as
the leadership of the Katari brothers was undermined, weakened the INdian’s confidence, etc. (70)
Chapter 9: Creole Tupamaristas
Chapter 10: Radicalized Violence in Upper Peru
-failure of assault of Chuquisaca led to dire consequences for the Katari brothers (91)
-lots of killing in churches (93)
-Andean peoples south of potosi also stood up during this time (94)
Chapter 16: The End of an Era
-destroying of symbolic representation of the Inca past and any preeminence extended to their putative
descendants (136)
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Document Summary

Massive uprising of the andean people: 1780s (early) (1) Whole insurgent armies organized from cusco in peru south to chile and argentina (1) At the hub was potos , which had one of the largest silver resources (2) From the caciques and other ethnic authorities, spanish treasury drew revenue (2) In cusco, 17000 soldiers were mobilized against tupac amaru forces. This was the first time the crown had to mobilize its armies since distant days of conquest (2) Idea/demand that govt of the andes be restored to the land"s ancient owners (3) Forgetting, and getting one"s history wrong, are essential factors in the making of a nation (5) Blood ties important: peruvian and bolivian upper classes not blind to cultural heritage of populations they ruled (5) Incas yes, indians no racism of the era (6) Popular movements, growing influence of indigenista and marxist intellectuals arose new change (6) New movements want balance, inequality to end.