Chapter 5 Notes

4 Pages
Unlock Document

Georgia Institute of Technology
History, Technology & Society
Tom Wang

Big Picture/preview InteractionBetweenHumansand An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China 753 BCE – 600 BCE theEnvironment-Demography and disease Migration, Patterns The rise, development, and fall of the two largest empires of the time: Rome and Han China of settlement Technology Developmentand Interactionof Scienceand technology, arts and architecture. pastoral production, Trade, Laborsystems. Developmentand TransformationofSocialStructuresion. Creation,Expansion,andInteractionofEconomic Systems-Agricultural and Gender roles and relations, Family and kinship, Racial and ethnic constructions Socialandeconomicclasses Topic Heading Info Examples of themes and Sub - Central location contributed to success in unifying Italy (crossroads of MediterraneaHuman Environment -Mild climate gives long farming season and larger variety of crops Interaction Headings -Region of Etruria in NW rich in iron and metals I. Rome’s -Most arable land was fertile volcanic soil Development of Cultures - legend says Romulus who was cast away and nursed by a she-wolf founded Rome in 753 Mediterranean BCE Empire 753 BCE – 600 BCE - Areas of Rome occupied as early as 1000 BCE around Palatine Hill - Latin and cultural patterns related to those of indigenous population - Agriculture vital and land basis of wealth, social classes related to land ownership A. A Republic of - Heads of wealthy families became members of Senate “Council of Elders” Statebuilding Farmers 753 – 31 - According to tradition, seven kings of Rome between 753 – 507 BCE - In Roman Republic from 507 – 31 BCE had power residing in several assemblies with BCE two consuls presiding vote of higher class more than vote of lower class - Roman Senate center of power, with fathers trying to pass seats to sons - inequality led to Conflict of Orders, conflict between plebians(lower class) and patricians(elites); result was publication of laws on 12 stone tablets and officials could be elected from lower classes Social Structures -Basic unit of society = family, oldest male in charge (paterfamilias) - patron/client relationship = client sought protection of patrons, men of power, and clients expected to follow patron to war, support in politics, and work his land -early Rome women viewed as children by law, unable to own land or rights - Over time grew more independency - Romans believed in an invisible force, numina Belief Systems -Tried to maintain pax deorum ( peace of gods) - Derived religion from that of the Greeks rd nd Conquest and Expansion B. Expansion in -Expansion began slowly and reached peak in 3 and 2 centuries BCE - structure of state encouraged war, and greed and aggressiveness led to war Italy and the - all male citizens who owned land subject to military service Mediterranean -soldier equipment similar to Greek hoplite, but battle line divided into units that could move more freely and very disciplined - Rome rose to power within a league of central city states defending against mountain tribes -Rome granted citizenship to all subjects and demanded troops from Italian subjects leading to overwhelming numbers -Fought with Carthage between 264 and 202 BCE, at first reluctant to occupy distant lands, conquest of Gaul 59 – 51 BCE by Gaius Julius Caesar first expansion in Europe - At first indigenous population loyal to cause given control of conquered lands - Every a senator was dispatched to province to serve as governor, over time system was corrupted and officials chosen by connections not ability C. Failure of - When farmers away at war between 3 and 2 century BCE their farms taken possession Transformation of Social of through intimidation or deception and made latifundias Structures Republic - Most wealth was in upper classes -Owners of latifundias found it wealthier to make wine rather than grow wheat - With large amount of slaves taking their jobs returning veterans had nothing to do resorting to poverty and rioting Conflict - Result of loss of farms was lack of land owning men to make soldiers - Between 88 and 31 BCE generals commanded armies more loyal to them than the state leading to civil wars D. The Roman - Julius Caesar’s grand nephew, Octavian (named Augustus by Senate) eliminated all rivaStatebuilding Principate and set about refashioning the Roman government 31 BCE - 330 CE - Became a military dictator calling himself princepes (first among equals) starting the era called Roman Principate - Augustus’s ruthlessness and patience enabled him to control all groups of Roman society - When he died after 45 years of rule no one could remember the Republic - Augustus allied himself with equites, class of well to do Italian merchants -This new administration fitting to run large empire -Due to his fame 4 of Augustus’s family members became emperors even with their shortcomings - Empendrs were chosen by the army - By 2 century succession was determined by emperor adopting a man of proven ability and making him his heir - Emperors regarded as gods after their deaths -The Law of the Twelve Tablets was supplemented by decrees of Senate, but during prinicipate emperor source of most laws E. An Urban Empire - Roman Empire of first three centuries BCE administered through a network of towns and cities, benefiting urban population - In largest cities waste, water, and food always problems - Upper class lived in elegant houses on one of the seven hills, poor lived in slums of low lying parts of city - Many cities and towns were replication of capital city in appearance and politics - ownership of land in small concentration of people reversed during civil wars but resumed in era of emperors - After end of conquest slaves not numerous and over time independent farmers replaced Economic Systems by tenant farmers, who were allowed to live on and cultivate land in return for a portion of their crops - commerce enhanced by safety and stability guaranteed by Roman might - depended on imports of grain from Sicily and Egypt - armies stationed in frontiers boosted prosperity of border states - Romanization – the spread of Latin language and Roman way of life, consequence of Development and empire Interaction of Cultures - Hellenistic influence dominated east Mediterranean and Romanization in west - reluctantly granted citizenship to people outside of Italy, to people like soldiers, and as grants for good service - extension of citizenship mirrored transformation form an Italian dominion to a commonwealth of the people F. Rise of - Jesus believed to be a rabii offended by Jewish leaders’ concerned with money he prescribed a return to the personal faith and spirituality of an earlier age Belief Systems Christianity - view Jesus as fiery prophet warning of end of world and God’s ushering in a of a blessed age -Jewish authorities afraid of Jesus’s rise in power turned him over to Roman government who crucified him, his followers spread his teachings and viewed him as the Messiah -Paul a follower of Jesus set of string of Christian communities in eastern Mediterranean - Rome reconquered Judea bringing down the Jerusalem-based Christian community, which focused on converting Jews, leaving the field clear for Paul’s non Jewish converts - First converts were of lower class but soon more influential people joined -Christians persecuted by Romans for they refused to w
More Less

Related notes for HTS 6XXX

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.