Chapter 5 Notes

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School
Georgia Institute of Technology
Department
History, Technology & Society
Course
HTS 6XXX
Professor
Tom Wang
Semester
Spring

Description
Big Picture/preview InteractionBetweenHumansand An Age of Empires: Rome and Han China 753 BCE – 600 BCE theEnvironment-Demography and disease Migration, Patterns The rise, development, and fall of the two largest empires of the time: Rome and Han China of settlement Technology Developmentand Interactionof Scienceand technology, arts and architecture. pastoral production, Trade, Laborsystems. Developmentand TransformationofSocialStructuresion. Creation,Expansion,andInteractionofEconomic Systems-Agricultural and Gender roles and relations, Family and kinship, Racial and ethnic constructions Socialandeconomicclasses Topic Heading Info Examples of themes and Sub - Central location contributed to success in unifying Italy (crossroads of MediterraneaHuman Environment -Mild climate gives long farming season and larger variety of crops Interaction Headings -Region of Etruria in NW rich in iron and metals I. Rome’s -Most arable land was fertile volcanic soil Development of Cultures - legend says Romulus who was cast away and nursed by a she-wolf founded Rome in 753 Mediterranean BCE Empire 753 BCE – 600 BCE - Areas of Rome occupied as early as 1000 BCE around Palatine Hill - Latin and cultural patterns related to those of indigenous population - Agriculture vital and land basis of wealth, social classes related to land ownership A. A Republic of - Heads of wealthy families became members of Senate “Council of Elders” Statebuilding Farmers 753 – 31 - According to tradition, seven kings of Rome between 753 – 507 BCE - In Roman Republic from 507 – 31 BCE had power residing in several assemblies with BCE two consuls presiding vote of higher class more than vote of lower class - Roman Senate center of power, with fathers trying to pass seats to sons - inequality led to Conflict of Orders, conflict between plebians(lower class) and patricians(elites); result was publication of laws on 12 stone tablets and officials could be elected from lower classes Social Structures -Basic unit of society = family, oldest male in charge (paterfamilias) - patron/client relationship = client sought protection of patrons, men of power, and clients expected to follow patron to war, support in politics, and work his land -early Rome women viewed as children by law, unable to own land or rights - Over time grew more independency - Romans believed in an invisible force, numina Belief Systems -Tried to maintain pax deorum ( peace of gods) - Derived religion from that of the Greeks rd nd Conquest and Expansion B. Expansion in -Expansion began slowly and reached peak in 3 and 2 centuries BCE - structure of state encouraged war, and greed and aggressiveness led to war Italy and the - all male citizens who owned land subject to military service Mediterranean -soldier equipment similar to Greek hoplite, but battle line divided into units that could move more freely and very disciplined - Rome rose to power within a league of central city states defending against mountain tribes -Rome granted citizenship to all subjects and demanded troops from Italian subjects leading to overwhelming numbers -Fought with Carthage between 264 and 202 BCE, at first reluctant to occupy distant lands, conquest of Gaul 59 – 51 BCE by Gaius Julius Caesar first expansion in Europe - At first indigenous population loyal to cause given control of conquered lands - Every a senator was dispatched to province to serve as governor, over time system was corrupted and officials chosen by connections not ability C. Failure of - When farmers away at war between 3 and 2 century BCE their farms taken possession Transformation of Social of through intimidation or deception and made latifundias Structures Republic - Most wealth was in upper classes -Owners of latifundias found it wealthier to make wine rather than grow wheat - With large amount of slaves taking their jobs returning veterans had nothing to do resorting to poverty and rioting Conflict - Result of loss of farms was lack of land owning men to make soldiers - Between 88 and 31 BCE generals commanded armies more loyal to them than the state leading to civil wars D. The Roman - Julius Caesar’s grand nephew, Octavian (named Augustus by Senate) eliminated all rivaStatebuilding Principate and set about refashioning the Roman government 31 BCE - 330 CE - Became a military dictator calling himself princepes (first among equals) starting the era called Roman Principate - Augustus’s ruthlessness and patience enabled him to control all groups of Roman society - When he died after 45 years of rule no one could remember the Republic - Augustus allied himself with equites, class of well to do Italian merchants -This new administration fitting to run large empire -Due to his fame 4 of Augustus’s family members became emperors even with their shortcomings - Empendrs were chosen by the army - By 2 century succession was determined by emperor adopting a man of proven ability and making him his heir - Emperors regarded as gods after their deaths -The Law of the Twelve Tablets was supplemented by decrees of Senate, but during prinicipate emperor source of most laws E. An Urban Empire - Roman Empire of first three centuries BCE administered through a network of towns and cities, benefiting urban population - In largest cities waste, water, and food always problems - Upper class lived in elegant houses on one of the seven hills, poor lived in slums of low lying parts of city - Many cities and towns were replication of capital city in appearance and politics - ownership of land in small concentration of people reversed during civil wars but resumed in era of emperors - After end of conquest slaves not numerous and over time independent farmers replaced Economic Systems by tenant farmers, who were allowed to live on and cultivate land in return for a portion of their crops - commerce enhanced by safety and stability guaranteed by Roman might - depended on imports of grain from Sicily and Egypt - armies stationed in frontiers boosted prosperity of border states - Romanization – the spread of Latin language and Roman way of life, consequence of Development and empire Interaction of Cultures - Hellenistic influence dominated east Mediterranean and Romanization in west - reluctantly granted citizenship to people outside of Italy, to people like soldiers, and as grants for good service - extension of citizenship mirrored transformation form an Italian dominion to a commonwealth of the people F. Rise of - Jesus believed to be a rabii offended by Jewish leaders’ concerned with money he prescribed a return to the personal faith and spirituality of an earlier age Belief Systems Christianity - view Jesus as fiery prophet warning of end of world and God’s ushering in a of a blessed age -Jewish authorities afraid of Jesus’s rise in power turned him over to Roman government who crucified him, his followers spread his teachings and viewed him as the Messiah -Paul a follower of Jesus set of string of Christian communities in eastern Mediterranean - Rome reconquered Judea bringing down the Jerusalem-based Christian community, which focused on converting Jews, leaving the field clear for Paul’s non Jewish converts - First converts were of lower class but soon more influential people joined -Christians persecuted by Romans for they refused to w
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