Chapter 8 Notes.doc

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Georgia Institute of Technology
History, Technology & Society
Tom Wang

Big Picture/preview InteractionBetweenHumansand the Environment-Demography Chapter 8 The Rise of Islam, 600 – 1200 and disease Migration, Patterns The Development and the Foundations of Islam and Islamic Culture. of settlement Technology DevelopmentandInteractionof Cultures-Belief systems Science and technology, arts and architecture. State-building,Expansion,andConflict-Political structures and forms of governance, expansion. Creation,Expansion,andInteractionof Economic Systems-Agricultural and pastoral production, Trade, Laborsystems. DevelopmentandTransformationofSocial Structures Gender roles and relations, Family and kinship, Racial and ethnic constructions Socialandeconomic classes Topic Heading Info Examples of themes - Arabs of 600 CE lived in Arabian Peninsula, Syria, Jordan, and Iraq Human Environment and Sub - Arab pastoralists in south remained isolated and independent and in these regions IslaInteraction Headings took form I. The Origins of - Majority of people were farmers or sailors and farming villages supported dense Islam populations A. Arabian - Sea of sand known as the Empty Quarter isolated southern regions from interior Development and Interaction Peninsula before - Nomads made income from providing camels and guiding merchants north to trade their of Cultures goods Muhammad - Nomad dominance increased with invention of military efficient camel saddles this resulted in rise of Arab-dominated caravan cities - By 600 CE wheeled vehicles replaced by pack camels and donkeys in ME - Arabs who accompanied caravans interacted with cultures and lifestyles of Sasanids and Byzantines. th - A nomadic kin group call Quraysh settled in Mecca in 5 century and controlled trade - Mecca prospered due to distance from invading civilizations - A cubical shrine called Ka’ba and holy well called Zamzam contributed to emergence of Mecca as pilgrim site B. Muhammad in - Muhammad born in 570 in Mecca grew up as orphan in uncle’s house Belief Systems Mecca - One night while he was meditating in mountains and angel Gabriel spoke to him about God - For 3 years Muhammad shared his revelations with friends and family and the revelations spread - Arabs of the time believed in unseen spirits: gods, jinns, demonic shaitans etc. - Muhammad’s early revelation called on people to witness that one god had created the universe - Revelation called all people to submit to God and accept Muhammad, doing so made one a Muslim - Muhammad’s revelation charged Jews and Christians with being negligent in preserving God’s revealed world - Scholars maintain that Muhammad’s revelation appealed especially to people distressed over wealth replacing kinship Statebuilding C. The - Mecca’s leaders feared that accepting Muhammad as sole agent of God would threaten their power and prosperity Formation of the - Muhammad and his followers fled Mecca in 622 in agricultural community of Medina to Unma North of Medina - Median representatives met with Muhammad and agreed to protect him and his followers because they saw that he inspired the people - Fresh revelations provided a framework for regulating social and legal affairs and stirred Muslims to fight non believing Meccans - In 630 Mecca surrendered and pilgrimage to Ka’ba opened - Muhammad’s mission to bring God’s message to humanity brought him unchallenged control of Arab state - In 632 Muhammad died and within 24 hours Abu Bakr, father of Muhammad’s favorite wife became caliph. - Abu Bakr continued and confirmed Muhammad’s religious practices the Five Pilars of Islam - Also expanded Muslim authority over Arabia’s settled and nomadic communities - Abu Bakr ordered those who acted as secretaries of Muhammad to organize prophet’s revelations into a book which in 650 was completed to create Quaran Expansion and Conflict - Unma (Islamic community) disagreed over succession of caliphate first Islamic civil war followed assassination of third caliph - After civil war between Ali and Mu’aiwiya, Mu’aiwiya became caliph and started Umayyadd Caliphate - Islam split after civil war those sympathetic to Ali became Shiites who believe that the leader of Islamic community should be one of Ali’s descendants - The muslims who supported the first 3 caliphs became Sunnis consider caliphs to be leaders of Islamic community - Sunni Islam never gave a single person the power to define true belief, expel heretics, and II. Rise and Fall discipline clergy of the Caliphate - Arab conquests outside Arabia began under second caliph, Umar 632 – 1258 - Arab armies won Syria, Egypt, and defeated last Sasanid shah A. Islamic - Then Tunisia fell and became the governing center which organized the conquest of Spain - In same year western India succumbed to invaders from Iraq Conquests 634 – - The close Meccan companions of the Prophet guided the conquests 711 - The decision made in Umar’s caliphate to prohibit Arabs from assuming ownership of conquered land proved important -The Arabs who participated in conquests were small part of pop living off of taxes paid by non Arabic and non Muslim citizens - Umayyad caliphs presided over ethinically defined Arab realm from Damascus Statebuilding B. The Umayyad - The introduction of Muslim coins in 8 century symbolized the new order and Early - Umayyad dynasty fell in 750 after a decade of growing unrest Abbasid - Converts to Islam from indigenous populations resented not achieving equal status with Caliphates 661 - the Arabs - Shiites and Kharijites attacked Umayyad family’s legitimacy as rulers launching a 850 number of rebellions and one such rebellion overthrew the Umayyad caliph Expansion and Conflict - Family of Abbas, one of Muhammad’s uncles controlled the secret organization that coordinated the revolt and established the Abbasid Caliphate - Abbasids held power until 1258 when Mongol invaders killed last of the - At its outset the Abbasid dynasty made a fine show of leadership and concern for Islam Interaction of Cultures - With its roots among the semi-Persianized Arabs of Khurasan, the new dynasty adopted the ways of Sasanid shahs - Gradual conversion to Islam among the conquered population accelerated in the second quarter of the ninth century and social discrimination against non Arabs slowly faded C. Political - Abbasid decline became evident in second half of ninth century as conversion to Islam accelerated, no government ruled
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