International Integration.docx

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International Affairs
INTA 1110
Tarun Chaudhary

International Integration Ch. 10 11/30/2012 10:56:00 AM Globalization and Integration  States create supranational international organization organizations  Technology Integration Theory  Why do states choose supranationalism?  International integration refers to the process by which supranational institutions replace national ones  States are unwilling to give up their sovereignty, so they limit the power of supranational organizations  Most successful example of integration is the EU.  Integration challenges the realist assumption that states were strictly autonomous and would never yield power or sovereignty  Functionalism o growth of specialized technical organizations that cross national borders o Technological and economic development lead to more and more supranational structures as states seek means to fulfill necessary functions  Neofunctionalism o Economic integration generates a political dynamic that drives integration further o Spillover: economic integration will eventually lead to political integration  Security community o Sense of community is established and these feelings grow in a security community  Integration reduces states’ ability to shield themselves and their citizens from the world’s many problems and conflicts. o Ex. Transnational terrorism  Integration can mean greater centralization o Political authority, information, and culture—threatens individual and group freedom o Resurgent nationalism is the result o Nationalism and supranationalism in constant conflict  Disintegration simultaneous with integration The European Union  The vision of a united Europe o Jean Monnet and Robert Schuman developed plans for functionalism in Europe after WWII o The Schuman Plan  1952  gave birth to the European Coal and Steel Community (ECSC)  France, Germany, Italy, Belgium, the Netherlands, Luxembourg  Worked to reduce trade barriers in coal and steel o In 1952, the ECSC states signed a second treaty to create a European Defense Community to work toward integrating Europe’s military forces under one budget and command.  Failed o 1953, ECSC states tried to form a European Political Community  Failed o In economic cooperation, supranational institutions succeeded, but in political and military affairs, state sovereignty prevailed  Treaty of Rome o 1957, ECSC states created two new organizations  Euratom—the European Atomic Energy Community  EEC—European Economic Community (now known as the European Community) o Free trade area means lifting tariffs and restrictions on the movement of goods across EEC borders  EFTA—members: Norway, Iceland, Liechtenstein, Switzerland o Customs Union is when states adopt a unified set of tariffs with regard to goods coming in from outside the free trade area.  Treaty of Rome committed the six states to creating a customs union by 1969  Heart of EU o Common Market means that in addition to the customs union, member states allow labor and capital to flow freely across borders o Economic and Monetary Union (EMU)  The overall economic policies of the member states would be coordinated for greatest efficiency and stability  Poor four: Greece, Portugal, Spain, Ireland  Structure of the European Union o Eurocrats: bureaucrats who care more about technical issues than political ones o 25,000 Eurocrats under the European Commission o European Commission has 27 members (one from each member state)  Chosen for 4 year renewable terms  They identify problems and propose solutions to the Council of the EU o European Commission reports to t
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