GOV 97 Chapter Notes - Chapter Dworkin: False Advertising

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The$influence$of$the$egalitarian$principle$will$be$pervasive$for$any$
society$that$accepts$it
§
Government$must$act$to$make$the$lives$of$citizens$better,$and$must$act$
with$equal$concern$for$the$life$of$each$member
A$society$committed$to$equal$concern$must$be$a$democracy
Democracy$requires$that$officials$be$elected$ by$the$people$rather$than$
chosen$through$inheritance$or$by$a$small$group$of$prominent$families$or$
electors.$But$that$abstract$statement$does$not$decide$which$officials$if$any$
should$be$chosen$not$by$the$community$as$a$whole$but$by$sections$or$
groups$within$it$(185).
Abstract$Egalitarian$Principle
The$best$form$of$democracy$is$whatever$form$is$most$likely$to$
produce$the$substantive$decisions$and$results$that$treat$all$
members$of$the$community$with$equal$concern
§
Dependent$Conception:
Democracy$is$essentially$a$matter$of$the$equal$distribution$of$power$
over$political$decisions
§
Detached$Conception:
Dependent$and$Detached$Conceptions
The$community$confirms$an$individual$person's$membership,$as$a$free$
and$equal$citizen,$by$according$him$or$her$a$role$in$the$collective$ decision.$
It$identifies$an$individual$who$is$excluded$from$the$political$process$as$
someone$not$fully$respected$or$not$fully$a$member
Participatory$consequences
"Almost$everyone$assumes$that$democracy$means$equal$voting$power$among$
competent$adults,$that$majority$rule$is$antidemocratic,$whether$or$not$it$can$be$
justified$by$appeal$to$some$principle$that$overrides$democracy$in$some$
circumstances."$(189)
"Divisive$issues$like$these$must$be$settled$through$the$political$ process,$and$
because$the$losers$in$that$process$will$be$expected$to$accept$the$decisions$the$
process$reaches,$even$though$they$think$it$unjust,$it$seems$fair$that$each$citizen$
have$equal$control$over$what$the$decision$is"$(189).
"No$Rockefeller$who$votes$in$your$jurisdiction$has$any$greater$impact$on$
political$decision$than$you$do;$his$vote$counts$for$no$more$than$yours"$(193).
"The$main$appeal$of$horizontal$equality$of$influence$lies$in$the$conviction$that$it$
is$unfair$that$some$private$citizens$have$much$more$influence$in$politics$than$
others$just$because$they$are$much$richer"$(195).
"disproportionate$political$influence$their$wealth$gives$them"$(195)
"Or$they$might$have$invested$more$in$study$and$training,$which$made$others$
more$likely$to$consult$them$or$listen$to$their$advice.$Or$they$might$have$led$
lives$of$such$conspicuous$achievement$or$virtue$that$others$trust$them$more$
or$are$more$ready$to$follow$them"$(195).
Prohibiting$political$speech$and$association$to$limit$political$influence$is$
unacceptable
"[…]$IN$POLITICAL$ARGUMENT$IT$IS$IMPOSSIBLE$TO$SEPARATE$DANCER$FROM$
DANCE"$(197).$Attempting$to$limit/stop$individuals$from$being$
influenced/having$influence$over$others$is$impossible,$as$politically$active/well$
informed$individuals$are$naturally$going$to$attempt$to$share$their$beliefs/views$
with$others$
"An$egalitarian$ society$wishes$its$citizens$to$engage$in$politics$out$of$a$shared$
and$intense$concern$for$the$justice$of$the$results,$out$of$a$shared$and$intense$
concern$that$distributional$decisions$treat$everyone$with$equal$concern"$(198).
Choice$sensitive$vs.$choice$insensitive
"Of$course$we$want$to$prevent$false$advertising$and$other$forms$of$deception$
whose$likely$effect$would$be$to$hide$facts$people$need$in$order$to$judge$
whether$a$particular$program$would$be$in$their$own$interests"$(206).
"We$would$also$want$to$prevent$manipulation$designed$to$create$tastes$that$
are$at$odds$with$people's$more$foundational$ambitions$or$values"$(206).
"FOR$JUST$AS$SOME$PEOPLE$OR$GROUPS$USE$THEIR$POLITICAL$INFLUENCE$TO$
DECEIVE$OR$MANIPULATE,$SO$OTHERS$USE$THEIR$ INFLUENCE$TO$TEACH,$
REFORM,$AND$ENNOBLE,$TO$SUGGEST$RANGES$OF$VALUE$AND$AMBITION$
THAT$MIGHT,$FOR$EXAMPLE,$LEAD$SOME$PEOPLE$TO$FAVOR$A$THEATER$OVER$
BOTH$A$SPORTS$STADIUM$AND$A$ROAD$SYSTEM$WHO$WOULD$NOT$
OTHERWISE$HAVE$EVEN$CONSIDERED$THE$CHOICE"$(206).
Week$One$(Dworkin)
Wednesday,$ February$17,$2016
8:36$PM
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