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Chapter 1- 3

NUR 239 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1- 3: Venous Thrombosis, Cyp3A4, Nursing Diagnosis


Department
Mennonite College of Nursing
Course Code
NUR 239
Professor
Yvette Pigman
Chapter
1- 3

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You should have an understanding of all the key terms at the beginning of each Chapter.
Key Learning Objectives - Answer the follow questions (Chapter 1 - The Foundation of
Pharmacology):
How are drugs named? Drug are given a generic name and a brand name, In the United states,
the United States Adopted Names Council assigns generic names, and the brand names are
designated by the manufacturer
Can a drug be in more than one category? Give an example. Morphine, a nervous system
depressant and a narcotic
Explain the ways people are able to obtain medication. Prescription drugs which require a
written order or over the counter drugs which do not require one
Describe the Categories of Controlled Substance ( Box 1.1. p. 6).
Schedule I: drugs that have no accepted medical use, have lack of accepted safety, and have
high abuse potentials: heroin, LSD, methamphetamines, ecstasy
Schedule II: drugs that are used medically and have high abuse potentials. E.G Morphine,
Codeine
Schedule III: Drugs with less potential for abuse than those in schedules I and II, but abuse of
which may lead to psychological or physical dependence E.G steroids
Schedule IV: drugs with an accepted medical use in the united states but with some potential for
abuse E.G Diazepam, Lorazepam
Schedule V: products containing moderate amounts of controlled substances. They may be
dispensed by the pharmacy the pharmacist without a prescription but with some restrictions
regarding amount, record keeping. E.G codeine
Describe how drugs are tested and approved for use in the U.S. initially drug testing occurs in
animals and small groups of humans (phase I), a few doses are given to a certain number of
healthy volunteers to determine safe dosages, routes of administration, absorption, metabolism,
excretion and toxicity.
Phase II: a few doses are given to subject with disease and symptoms for which the drug is
being studied and responses are compared with those of healthy subjects
Phase III: the drug is given to different populations and different dosages and by using the drug
in combination with other drugs
Key Learning Objectives - Answer the follow questions (Chapter 2 - Basic Concepts and Processes):
What is Pharmacokinetics? – drug movement through the body to reach sites of action
Explain each process of Pharmacokinetics. -Absorption: is the process that occurs from the time
a drug enters the body to the time it enters the bloodstream to the circulated
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Distribution: involves the transport of drug molecules within the body
Metabolism or biotransfusion: is the method by which drugs are inactivated or biotransformed
by the bosy
Excretion: refers to elimination of a drug from the body. Effective circulation requires adequate
functioning of circulatory system and excretory system. (kidneys. Lungs and skin)
Explain First-Pass Effect. -some drugs are extensively metabolized in the liver, with only part
of the drug dose reaching the systemic circulation for distribution and action
How are serum drug levels determined? -Is a lab measurement of the amount of drug in the
blood at a particular time
Explain “Minimum Effective Dose”. -Amount of drug that must be present before a drug can
exert its pharmacological action on body cells
What are causes of toxic concentration? -may stem from a single large dose, repeated small
doses, or slow metabolism that allows the drug to accumulate in the body,
The goal of drug therapy is known as the therapeutic range, that is enough for the drug to
beneficial but not enough for the drug to be toxic
Describe the following terms in relationship to serum drug levels: onset, peak, and duration of
action.-onset of action occurs when the drug level reaches MEC
Peak drug action is its highest concentration
Drug action stops when drug levels fall below MEC
The duration of action time is the time during which serum drug levels are at or below MEC
Identify times when measuring serum drug levels would be useful.
To document the serum drug levels associated with particular drug dosages, therapeutic effects,
or possible adverse effects
To monitor unexpected responses to a drug such as decreased therapeutic effects or increased
adverse effects
When drug overdose is suspected
Define the term “Serum Half-Life”.is the time required for the serum concentration of a drug to
decrease by 50%
What is Pharmacodynamics? Drug actions on target cells and the resulting alterations in cellular
biochemical reactions and functions
Describe the Receptor Theory of Drug Action (three reactions types).
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