CH 17 Notes

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Biological Sciences
BIOL 1201
All Professors

Chapter 17The information content of DNA is in the form of specific sequence of nucleotidesDNA inherited by an organism leads to specific traits dictated by protein synthesisProteins link genotype and phenotypeGene expression process by which DNA directs protein synthesis includes two stages transcription DNA to mRNA occurs in nucleus and translation RNA to protein occurs in ribosomesRNA is intermediate bw genes and proteins for which they codeTranscription synthesis of messenger RNA under direction of DNATranslation synthesis of protein at ribosome under direction of mRNAIn prokaryotes mRNA produced by transcription is immediately translated wo more processingIn eukaryotes the nuclear envelope separates transcriptionPrimary eukaryotic RNA transcripts modified through RNA processingFig 173 in slideshow20 amino acids but only 4 nucleotide bases in DNA3 bases correspond to an amino acid This is called a codonEx AGT at a particular position on a DNA strand results in placement of amino acid serine at that corresponding position of the polypeptide to be producedDuring transcription one of the two DNA strands called the template strand provides a template for ordering the sequence of nucleotides in an RNA transcriptDuring translation the mRNA base triplets called codons are read in the 5 to 3 directionAll 64 codons were deciphered by the mid1960sOf the 64 triplets 61 code for amino acids 3 triplets are stop signals to end translationThe genetic code is redundant but not ambiguous each codon stands for only one amino acid however most amino acids are coded for by more than one codon START AUGMethionine STOP UGA UAG UAA stop codons code for STOP not for any amino acidsGenetic code nearly universal
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