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Chapter 1

BIOL 1201 Chapter Notes - Chapter 1: Organism, Eukaryote, Chloroplast


Department
Biological Sciences
Course Code
BIOL 1201
Professor
All
Chapter
1

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of 4
Chapter 1: Crousillac – Biology 1201 Summer 2014
1.8 million species have been identified and named
Evolution is a central theme in biology
Ability to evolve is built into organisms
Evolution: a change in the genetic makeup of a population over time as a result of natural selection
Ex: giraffe
Longer-necked giraffes
Then trees got taller to survive, etc
2 Principles of Evolution:
Variation: all different
Competition: someone is better table to survive (winner/loser)
There are variations within every species (height)
Some are “better” suited to survival (natural selection, survival of the fittest)
Variability comes from genes  inherited
More “good genes” survive and thus population changes
2 ------Life contains an order of structural levels with each level building on the levels beneath it
(More levels = more complex)
Hierarchy of biological organization
Hierarchy
Biosphere: all of the environments on earth that are inhabited by life (land, water, layers of the
atmosphere)
Ecosystems: all living things in a particular area, along with non-living environment components
with which life interacts (soil, water, air components, light)
Community: the entire array of organisms inhabiting a particular ecosystem
Population: individuals of a species living within the bounds of a particular area
Organism: Individual living things
Organ/organ system: body part consisting of 2 or more tissues which carry out a specific
function within an organism (liver, kidney)
Tissue: groups of cells from similar embryonic origins that combine to form organs
Cell: the fundamental unit of structure and function in life (neuron, hepacyte?)
Organelle: various functional components that make up cells (chloroplast, mitochondria)
Molecule: chemical structure consisting of 2 or more atoms (chlorophyll in plants)
Atoms: basic unit of matter (Hydrogen)
Subatomic particle: all units of matter smaller than the atom (protons, neutrons, etc.)
3 ------Each level of biological organization has emergent properties
a property that emerges as a result of interactions between components as complexity increases
Ex: if you mix the components of chloroplast together in a test tube, photosynthesis won’t occur
because the molecules must interact in a specific way
Sodium and chloride – NaCl
4 ------Life has the ability to acquire material and energy
(they are often transformed)
Energy is the capacity to do work
All levels of biological organizations are thermodynamically “open systems”
Exchanging energy (heat and work) and matter with their environment
5 -----Form dictates Function
Structure and function are related
Form and Function
Tools: made/constructed for a specific task
Anatomy of plants and animals determine the task that they perform
Plant leaves: thin and flat to maximize sunlight absorption
Bird wing bones: inner structure like a honeycomb, lightweight and strong
6-----Living things reproduce and cells are the basic unit of structure and function
Prokaryotic cells are cells which lack internal cellular membranes (No nucleus and organelles)
Eurkaryotic cells: cells which have a membrane-enclosed nucleus and membrane-enclosed
organelles
Cells
Lowest level of organization that performs all activities required for life
Cell division is the basis for reproduction and for growth and repair of multicellular organisms
7-----DNA is the basis of the heritable information
The passing of DNA from 1 generation to another is the basis of inheritance
Acquisition of traits by transmission of DNA from parent to offspring
This process of transmitting DNA is built into the functions of reproduction
8-----DNA also provides the instructional methods that guide the growth and development of
multicellular organism
9-----Organisms have the ability to maintain their structure and regulate their internal environment
Homeostasis
Concept 1.2
The Core Theme: evolution accounts for the unity and diversity of life
With all the underlying similarities there is an amazing diversity of the organisms on the planet
How is it arranged?