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Chapter

Geology 1002 Chapter 2 Review


Department
Geology
Course Code
GEOL 1002
Professor
All

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Key Terms and Concepts
Continental drift: the large-scale movements of continents across Earth’s surface
driven by the plate tectonic system
Convergent boundary: A boundary between lithospheric plates where the plates
move toward each other and one plate is recycled into the mantle
Divergent boundary: A boundary between lithospheric plates where two plates
move apart and new lithosphere is created.
Geodesy: The science of measuring the shape of Earth and locating points on its
surface
Island arc: a chain of volcanic islands formed on the overriding plate at a convergent
boundary by magma that rises from the mantle as water released from the
subducting lithospheric slab causes fluid induced melting
Isochron: a contour that connects rocks of equal age
Magnetic anomaly: One pattern of long narrow bands of high or low magnetic
intensity on the seafloor that are parallel to an almost perfectly symmetrical with
respect to the crest of a mid ocean ridge
Magnetic time scale: the detailed history of Earth’s magnetic field reversals as
determined by measuring the thermoremanent magnetization of rock samples
whose ages are known
Mantle plume: a narrow, cylindrical jet of hot, solid material rising from deep within
the mantle, thought to be responsible for intraplate volcanism
mid-ocean ridge: an undersea mountain chain at a divergent plate boundary,
characterized by earthquakes, volcanism, and rifting, all caused by the tensional
forces of mantle convection that are pulling the two plates apart
Pangaea: A super continent that coalesced in the late Paleozoic era and comprised
all present continents, then began to break up in the Mesozoic era.
Plate tectonics: The global geosystem that includes the convecting mantle and its
overlying mosaic of lithospheric plates
Rodinia: A supercontinent older than Pangaea that formed about 1.1 billion years
ago and began to break up about 750 milllion years ago
Seafloor Spreading: the mechanism by which new oceanic crust is formed at a
spreading center on the crest of a mid ocean ridge. As two plates move apart,
magma wells up into the rift between them to form new crust, which spreads
laterally away from the rift and is replaced continually by newer crust.
Spreading Center: A divergent boundary, marked by a rift at the crest of a mid
ocean ridge, where new oceanic crust is formed by seafloor spreading
Subduction: the sinking of oceanic lithosphere beneath overriding oceanic or
continental lithosphere at a convergent plate boundary
Transform fault: A plate boundary at which the plates slide horizontally past each
other and lithosphere is neither created nor destroyed.
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