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ANP 203 (9)
Chapter 11

Chapter 11 vocab- (book).odt

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Department
Anthropology
Course
ANP 203
Professor
Prof.Lewis
Semester
Spring

Description
Chapter 11 vocab: (book) • Kitchen Midden: An above ground accumulation or pile of residue from food preparation. Inedible material, spoilage, and excess is thrown on the pule and left to decay. The stuff that does not disappear-depending on the local soil condition this will often be bones, shells, and carbonized remains such as seed husks, nutshells, cobs, and rinds- becomes a kitchen midden. • Flotation:Aprocedure used in archaeology to separate artifacts and ecofacts from excavated soil, either the soil matrix recovered from a feature or soil samples taken from ancient living surfaces, by the use of water. Flotation is based on the fact that in the vast majority of instances, the archaeological material you are trying to isolate and recover from the surrounding soil has a different specific gravity than water. This means that when dumped into a pool of standing water, most archaeological remains will separate from the water by either floating to the top or sinking to the bottom. Materials that float can be collected by skimming the waters surface. Materials that sink can be extracted by draining the water through a fine mesh screen that will allow the water and most of the very fine soul particles, but not the artifacts or ecofacts to pass through. • Comparative Collections: Grouping of samples of animal bones, seeds, nuts, lithic raw materials, and so on that can aid in the identification of materials recovered at archaeological sites.Acomparative collection is, essentially, a library of prototypes that serve as the models by which archaeological samples can be judged and identified. Comparative collections are particularly valuable when the archaeological specimens are highly fragmented. • Starch Grains: Small pieces of starch produced by plants. The shapes of starch grains are species-specific. As a result, when starch grains are preserved on tools used to process plants, the can be recovered, and the plant species that produced the grains and on which the tool was used can be identified. • Phytoliths: Microscopic, inorganic mineral particles produced by plants. Phytoliths are extremely durable and species-specific. Enormous databases are being compiled that allow re
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