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Chapter 1

Chapter 1 Matter and Measurements

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CEM 151

Chapter 1 Matter and MeasurementsMonday June 9 2014348 PMFoundations Sources of knowledgeSome Presuppositions of Natural ScienceRevelation knowledge learned from anotherThe world is real and exists independent of usExperience knowledge learned by experienceThe natural world isReason knowledge learned by logicOf great value and worthy of studyEmpirical knowledge learned by experimentThe objects are not divine but more like a garden to live inScientific methodOrderlyTheory vs LawGoverned by lawsTheoryPrecise and therefore we can apply mathematics to our observationsA set of test hypotheses that agree with observations and give an The investigative efforts of mankind can discover order in the natural worldoverall explanation of some natural phenomenonThis order must be uncovered by experimentation as opposed to deductionNot set in stoneTrue Science Must BeExperiments can refine or replaceObservableExplainswhat happensTestableLawRepeatableSame observations apply to many systemsFalsifiableDescribeswhat happensIt deals with material thingsIt is not absolute but is constantly subject to changeClassification of MatterSeparating MixturesMatter anything with mass and takes up spaceFiltrationClassified based on its physical stateSeparates heterogeneous mixture of a solid from a liquid or a solutionGasDistillationSeparates homogeneous mixture of liquids based on their differences in No fixed volume or shape assumes the shape of its containerboiling pointsCan be compressed to occupy smaller volume or expand to Chromatographylarger volumeSeparates homogeneous mixture based on solubilityMolecules are further apartChemical ChangesLiquidNew substances with different properties are producedFixed volume but no shape assumes the shape of its containerPossible clues that a chemical change has taken place are heat evolution Molecules slide past each otheror absorption color change gas production and formation of precipitateSolidie combustion rusting oxidation decomposition fermenting etcHas a definite shape and volumePhysical ChangesMolecules are held tightly togetherChanges that change the state or appearance of a substance without changing Classified based on its compositionthe composition of that substanceHomogeneous mixtureHas a uniform composition throughoutHeterogeneous mixtureScientificMethodDoes not have uniform composition properties and appearanceA systematic procedure for solving problems an exploring natural Contains visibly different substances or phasesphenomenaPure SubstancesObservations and experimentsare the foundation of the scientific Made of only one kind of mattermethodHave a constant composition with distinct propertiesData can b
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