Chapter 10 (book)
• The gaol of probation is to retain some control over criminal offenders while using community
programs to help rehabilitate them.
• Probation is the most common form of criminal sentencing in the United States
• General conditions to probation apply to all probationers in a given jurisdiction and usually
require that the probationer obey all laws, maintain employment, remain within the jurisdiction
of the court, possess no firearms, allow the probation officer to visit at home or at work and so
• Special conditions to probation may be mandated by a judge who feels that the probationer is in
need of particular guidance or control.
• Federal probation and pretrial services officers are federal law enforcement officers who have
statutory authority to arrest or detain individuals suspected or convicted of federal offenses and
to arrest probationers for violations of the conditions of probation.
• Probation is a sentencing option available to a judge who determines the form probation will
take, whereas parole results from an administrative decision by a legally designated paroling
• The national average for people on parole is 358 per 100,000 people
• Approximately 49% of parolees successfully complete parole.About 25% are returned to prison
for parole violation, another 9% go back to prison for new offenses during their parole period,
and others may be transferred to new jurisdictions, abscond and not be caught, or die.
• Advantages to parole and probation:
◦ Lower Costs
◦ Increased Employment
◦ Community Support
◦ Reduced Risk of Criminal socialization
◦ Increased use of community services
◦ Increased opportunity for rehabilitation
• Disadvantages to parole and probation:
◦ Relative lack of punishment
◦ Increased risk to the community
◦ Increased social costs
• The most frequent violations for which revocation occurs are:
◦ Failure to report as required to a probation or parole officer
◦ Failure to participate in a stipulated treatment program
◦ Alcohol or drug a